PPE- Chapter 2
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proposes that underlying psychological factors cause symptoms and other behavior.
father of psychoanalysis
form of neurosis in which psychological conflicts are expressed in physical symptoms (blindness, deafness, mutism, paralysis, tics)
Extreme form of mental disorder
irrationality of the unconscious, hallucinations.
"The royal road to the unconscious"
Usually, disguises the fulfillment of a repressed wish.
the surface meaning of a dream. (Recalled story)
The hidden, unconscious meaning of a dream (interpretation)
Plasure principle: basic drives and sexual desires.
The reality principle, structure of personality
that is the internal voice of parental and societal restrictions
Conscious but much of it remains unconscious
the most mature structure of personality; mediates intrapsychic conflict and copes with the external world.
repression requires energy, and the more energy tied up in the conflict, the less energy is available for dealing with current
a person thinks or behaves in a manner oppositve to the unacceptable unconscious impulse
defense mechanism: not acknowledging painful aspects of reality (repression)
people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
Shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
Offering self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions.
Finding a socially acceptable aim and object for the expression of an unacceptable impulse
experiences of which a person is aware, including memories and intentional actions
some material that is not in awareness at a particular time can be brought to awareness readily.
Includes info that is not at the moment being
thought about but can easily be remembered if needed.
mental processes of which a person is not aware.
Such material remains in the unconscious because
making it conscious would produce too much anxiety.
everything of which we are unaware (breathing, walking)
Highly suggestible state, often called a trance
____lose touch with reality and experience the unconscious in raw form through hallucinations, seeing and hearing things that are not actually present.
the coding process which has produced the dream.
a psychologically motivated error in speech, hearing or behavior
(a misstatement or slip of the tongue)
Parapraxes (Freudian Slip)
safe expression of repressed conflict, deriving its pleasure from the release of tension through a joke.
2 or more images are combined to form an image that merges the meanings and impulses of both.
a test that presents ambiguous stimuli such as inkblots or pictures so responses will be determined by the test taker’s unconscious.
mechanism for removing unpleasant thoughts, including unacceptable impulses, from consciousness.
people seek pleasure and avoid pain
psychic energy, derived from sexuality
the death instinct
investment of psychic energy in an object
unconscious mental functioning in which the id predominates; characterized by illogical, symbolic thought.
conscious mental functioning in which the ego predominates; characterized by logical thought.
conflict within the personality, as between id desires and superego restrictions.
signals that id impulses may break through (overcome repression) and be expressed.
indicates feat that one's own superego will respond with guilt.
indicates that the external world threatens real danger.
defense mech. in which a person fuses or models after another person
defense mech. in which conflictual material is kept disconnected from other thoughts
defense mech. in which a person focuses on thinking and avoids feeling
Focuses on punishment for masturbation and child’s
complex fantasy of a sexual union with the opposite sex parent.
Birth to age 1
controlling bowels/ toilet training
5yrs to puberty
puberty to adulthood
failure to develop normally through a particular developmental stage
male conflict involving sexual love for the mother and aggressive rivalry w/ the father.
fear that motivates male development (that his penis will be cut off) at age 3-5
presented stimuli with a tachistoscope. This device allows very brief presentations of stimuli. Subjects reported that they could see only brief flickers of light. Although they could not consciously identify the subliminal messages, they were influenced by them.
subliminal psychodynamic activaiton
the patient says whatever comes to mind, permitting unconscious connections to be discovered
Therapeutic effect of a release of emotion when previously repressed material is made conscious
Conscious recognition of one’s motivation and
in therapy, the patient’s displacement onto the therapist of feelings based on earlier experiences
the analyst’s reaction to the patient, as distorted by unresolved conflicts.
controversial technique that may result in false memories.
Recovered memory controversy
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