302 Communication

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  1. The process of exchanging information and the process of generating and transmitting meanings between two or more individuals
  2. The Process of Communication:
    • Encoder-- person that is sending the message
    • Decoder-- person that is interpreting/receiving the message
    • Stimulus-- what the message was initiated by
    • Message
    • Channel:
    •    *Visual
    •    *Auditory       
    •    *Kinesthetic
    •    *Feedback
  3. Levels of Communiation:
    1.      Intrapersonal -- talking to yourself .."You can do this!"

    2.      Interpersonal -- talking to 2 or more people

    3.      Small Group

    4.      Organizational
  4. Roles of Group Members:
    • Task-oriented—focus on work to be done
    • Maintenance—focus on well-being of people doing work
    • Self-serving—advance the needs of individual members at group’s expense
  5. Forms of Verbal Communication:
    Spoken language:




    Tone, volume, rate,


  6. Forms of Non-Verbal Communication:
    • •Touch
    • •Eye contact
    • •Facial expression
    • •Posture
    • • Gait
    • • Gestures
    • • General physical appearance
    • • Mode of dress and grooming
    • •Sounds
    • • Silence
  7. What is non-verbal communication used for?
    *to enhance, disguise, negate, or modify verbal messages

    90% of meaning of a message comes from the non-verbal messages
  8. Factors that influence communication:
    • Perception
    • - received through 5 senses – sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell
    • Developmental level
    • Gender
    • Sociocultural differences
    • Roles and responsibilities
    • Space and territoriality
    • Physical, mental, and emotional state
    • Values
    • Environment- Situation
    • Socioeconomic Group
    • Education 
  9. Helping Relationship
    Exists among people who provide and receive assistance in meeting human needs.

    • Between a nurse and patient
    • Between a nurse and family

    Helping relationships are professional----

    Must always demonstrate professionalism in their appearance demeanor and behavior

    The Helping Relationship

    Does not occur spontaneously

    Characterized by an unequal sharing of information

    Built on the patient’s needs
  10. Characteristics of A Helping Relationship
    Dynamic- the person helping and the person being helped are active participants

    • Purposeful and time limited—specific goals that are intended to be met within a certain
    • time frame

    • Accountability-
    • the person providing the assistance is professionally accountable for the outcome of the relationship and the means used to attain them
  11. Goals of a Helping Relationship:
    Determined cooperatively

    Defined in terms of the patient’s needs

    Interventions are selected that will help ensure the person moves toward the goals.

    Interventions change occurs as the patient’s needs and goals change

    Nurse’s needs are temporarily set aside to focus on the patient
  12. Phases of a Helping Relationship
    Orientation phase

    Working phase

    Termination phase
  13. Dispositional traits that promote effective communication:
    •Warmth and Friendliness

    •Openness and Respect


    •Honesty, Authenticity, and Trust



  14. Rapport Builders (effective communication)
    • Specific objectives

    • Comfortable Environment

    • Privacy

    • Confidentiality

    • Patient versus task force

    • Using nursing observations

    • Optimal pacing

    • Respecting personal space
  15. Professional Communication includes:

    Use of Names

    Privacy and Confidentiality


    Autonomy and Responsibility

  16. Therapeutic Communication Skills:
    Conversation skills

    Listening skills




    Interviewing techniques

    Assertiveness Skills
  17. Developing Converation skills:
    Control the tone of your voice

    Be knowledgeable about the topic of conversation

    Be flexible

    Be clear and concise

    Avoid words that might have different interpretations

    Be truthful

    Keep an open mind

    Take advantage of available opportunities
  18. Developing listening skills:
    Sit when communicating with a patient

    Be alert and relaxed and take your time

    Keep the conversation as natural as possible

    Maintain eye contact if appropriate

    Use appropriate facial expressions and body gestures

    Think before responding to the patient

    Do not pretend to listen

    Listen for themes in the patient’s comments

    Use silence, therapeutic touch, and humor appropriately

    Basic Components of Assertiveness

    Having empathy

    Describing one’s feelings or the situation

    Clarifying one’s expectations

    Anticipating consequences
  19. BLOCKS to communication:
    • Failure to perceive the patient as a human being
    • Failure to listen
    • Inappropriate comments or questions
    • Using cliches
    • Using questions requiring yes/no answers
    • Using questions containing the words why/how
    • Using questions that probe for information
    • Using leading questions
    • Using comments that give advice
    • Using judgmental comments
    • Changing the subject
    • Giving false assurance
    • Gossip and rumor
    • Aggressive interpersonal behavior
    • Horizontal violence
    • Bullying
    • Criticizing
    • Blaming
    • Bickering
Card Set:
302 Communication
2012-08-31 21:28:43
302 Communication

Exam 1
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