Chapter 43-48

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Chapter 43-48
2010-04-30 17:41:01
American History

Chapter vocabulary
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  1. Harry S. Truman
    • * 33rd President
    • *third vice-president for Roosevelt
    • * artillery officer in WWI
    • *passed the Fair Deal Act
    • *he decided to use nucular weapons on japan
    • *
  2. Wendell Wilkie
    • *corporate lawyer
    • *the dark horse Republican Party nominee for the 1940 presidential election,
    • *he crusaded against the inefficiency and anti-business policies of the New Deal, but waffled on the issue of intervention or isolation in the world war that Nazi Germany was winning
    • *lost to Roosevelt
    • *appointed special ambassador-at-large by Roosevelt
    • * a vision of "One World" freed from imperialism and colonialism
    • *died of a heart attack
  3. America First
    • *an isolationist political party
    • *founded on January 10, 1943
  4. Atlantic Charter
    • *published statement agreed between Britain and the United States
    • *blueprint for the postwar world after World War II,
    • *foundation for many of the international agreements, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the post-war independence of British and French possessions
    • *statement was drafted and agreed while the British were fighting in World War II against Nazi Germany
  5. Neutrality Acts
    • *laws that were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II.
    • *its costly involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts.
  6. Stalingrad
    • a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in southwestern Russia
    • *as one of the turning points of the war.
    • *was the first substantial German land defeat of the war.
    • *bloodiest in the history of warfare, with the upper estimates of combined casualties coming to nearly two million.
  7. Albert Einstein
    • was a German-born Swiss-American theoretical physicist, philosopher and author who is widely regarded as one of the most influential and best known scientists and intellectuals of all time.
    • *father of modern physics
    • *received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.
    • *contributions to physics include special and general theories of relativity, the founding of relativistic cosmology, the first post-Newtonian expansion, explaining the perihelion advance of Mercury, prediction of the deflection of light by gravity and gravitational lensing, the first fluctuation dissipation theorem which explained the Brownian movement of molecules, the photon theory and wave-particle duality, the quantum theory of atomic motion in solids, the zero-point energy
  8. Chiang Kai-Shek
    • *a political and military leader of 20th century China.
    • *led the Northern Expedition to unify the country, becoming China's overall leader
    • *engaged in a long standing civil war with the Chinese Communist Party (CCP
  9. Fat Man
    • *is the codename for the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945, at 11:02 (JSP).
    • *the second of the only two nuclear weapons to be used in warfare to date, and its detonation caused the third man-made nuclear explosion
  10. Yalta Conference
    *sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, was the February 4–11, 1945 wartime meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union—President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and General Secretary Joseph Stalin, respectively—for the purpose of discussing Europe's postwar reorganization
  11. Taft-Hartley Act
    * US Federal Law that monitors the activities and power of labor unions.
  12. Warsaw Pact
    is the informal name for the mutual defense Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance commonly known as the Warsaw Pact subscribed by eight communist states in Eastern Europe, which was established at the USSR’s initiative and realized on 14 May 1955, in Warsaw, Poland.
  13. Katyn Forest
    • *was a mass murder of Polish nationals carried out by the Soviet secret police NKVD in April-May 1940
    • *The number of victims is estimated at about 22,000, the most commonly cited number being 21,768.[
    • *About 8,000 were officers taken prisoner during the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland, the rest being Polish doctors, professors, lawmakers, police officers, and other public servants arrested for allegedly being "intelligence agents, gendarmes, saboteurs, landowners, factory owners, lawyers, priests, and officials.
  14. Inchon
    • *The Battle of Inchon was an amphibious invasion and battle of the Korean War that was conducted with a nearly 40 to 1 troop ratio[citation needed] in favor of UN forces and resulted in a decisive victory and strategic reversal in favor of the United Nations
    • * secured after bombed
    • * U.S. Marines, commanded by General of the Army Douglas MacArthur.
  15. Joseph McCarthy
    • *was an American politician who served as a Republican U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin
    • *public face of a period in which Cold War tensions fueled fears of widespread Communist subversion
    • *he claims that there were large numbers of Communists and Soviet spies and sympathizers inside the United States federal government
  16. Baby boom
    is any period marked by a greatly increased birth rate. This demographic phenomenon is usually ascribed within certain geographical bounds and when the number of annual births exceeds 2 per 100 women
  17. Discretionary Income
    is income after subtracting taxes and normal expenses (such as rent or mortgage, utilities, insurance, medical, transportation, property maintenance, child support, inflation, food and sundries, &c.) to maintain a certain standard of living
  18. Betty Frieden
    • was an American writer, activist and feminist.
    • * leader of "Second Wave" of the U.S. Women's Movement
    • *wrote book The Feminist Mystique also Wayward son
  19. William Levitt
    • was an American real-estate developer widely credited as the father of modern American suburbia
    • *providing affordable housing popularized this type of planned community in the years following World War II.
    • * President of Levitt & Sons, the real-estate development company
    • *born Jewish
  20. Interstate Highway Act
    Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways, commonly called the Interstate Highway System (or simply the Interstate), is a network of limited-access highways (also called freeways or expressways) in the United States
  21. Polio
    • *is an acute viral infectious disease spread from person to person, primarily via the fecal-oral route
    • *affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream
    • *virus enters the central nervous system, preferentially infecting and destroying motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness and acute flaccid paralysis.
  22. Hungary
    is a landlocked country in the Carpathian Basin in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia. Its capital is Budapest.
  23. Bay of Pigs
    was an unsuccessful attempt by a CIA -trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba, with support from US government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.
  24. Flexible Response
    a defense strategy implemented by John F. Kennedy in 1961 to address the Kennedy administration's skepticism of Dwight Eisenhower's New Look and its policy of Massive Retaliation
  25. Lee Harvey Oswald
    • was, according to three government investigations, the assassin of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, who was fatally shot on November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas
    • *A United States Marine who defected to the Soviet Union and later returned, Oswald was arrested on suspicion of killing Dallas police officer J. D. Tippit