Card Set Information
What are the 3 defense systems of the body?
normal body functions (skin, saliva, mucous, etc)
immune response- forming agents to go kill/destroy/contain the invader
What is immunity?
resistance to or protection from an individuals environment
What is an internal chemical system whose purpose is to enhance reactivity to material that us foreign to the body?
born with immunity
vaccines/already having the diease
What is an antigen?
material recognized as foreign by the immunologic system
How does the immune system recognize antigens?
by producing antibodies specific for each antigen
What are antibodies derived from?
What type of lymphocytes originate from lymph tissue in alimentary tract or bone marrow?
major defense of bacteria
specific to each target antibody
What keeps the immunity system in balance?
What makes antibodies?
Where do T cells originate from?
major protector against virus's and fungi
What are the little informants that figure out what the antigen is and tells the B cells what antibodies to make?
What are T-suppressor cells?
keep the B's in check
dont let B cells produce too much
What cells are really strong, and go out and directly kill antigens?
cytotoxic T cells
What are natural killer cells?
not B or T
go directly kill antigens
defense against cancer
What is the immune process?
antigen is broken down by macrophages
then presented to T cells
*program a group of B cells to produce antibody with T helpers
*suppression of production of antibody with T cells
What is an immunoglobulin?
plasma proteins that contain antibodies
once antibodies are formed, they circulate in plasma
What are the 5 classes of immunogobulins?
What immunoglobulin is secreated in body fluids (tears, saliva, mucosal tracts:bronchi, intestinal)?
interact with antigens before they get to the tissues and cause damage
What is IgG?
transmitted from mom to placenta to baby
gets in babys system, and then baby is protected for first 6 months against diseases mom has alread had
What immunologobulin fights against bacteria that enters the blood system, and is very large?
What is IgE?
defends the respiratory tract and released histamines to fight-> makes us snotty
What immunoglobulin is found in serum, and it is not sure what they do?
What is type 1: anaphylactic-atopic allergy?
immediate reaction to antigen the person has already become exposed to
mediated by IgE
hay fever, environmental (asbestos), food allergies
What is type2: cytotoxic-type hypersensitivity?
IgG's and IgM's
reaction to transfusion
erythroblastosis fetalis (poke babies foot and test RH factor to be sure blood is compatible)
myasthenia gravis (immune diease, body is attacking itself, antibodies are attacking neurotransmitters, lots of weakness/atrophy-juice isnt getting to the brain)
What is type 3:immune complex diseases?
activates a lot of inflammation over a long period of time
RA (systemic, through the whole body, lots of organ problems also, symmetrical on both sides of body)
systemic lupus erythematosis
What is type 4 delayed hypersensitivity?
tissue reaction in response to subcutaneous antigen (skin)
the more the person is exposed, the worse they get
What are some examples of type 1 hypersensitivity reactions/diseases?
What are some examples of type 2 hypersensitivity reactions/diseases?
reactions to transfusions
What are some examples of type 3 hypersensitivity reactions/diseases?
What are some examples of type 4 hypersensitivity reactions/diseases?
What is the inability of the immune system to differeniate between self and nonself antigens?
What is systemic lupus erythematosus?
chronic inflammatory disease of the kidneys, joints, and skin
antigen/antibody overdeposit in tissues and cause vasculitis/synovitis (overactivity of immune system)
bc circulating immune complexes deposit in almost all tissues, virtually every organ is affected
varies in severity
What occurs in pts with lupus?
b-cell hyperactivity (out of control, working too hard, t suppressors not working)
tissue injury (glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, arthritis, butterfly rash on face)
etiology unknown (possibly virus, hormones, genetics, drugs)
What is inflammation of the kidneys?
What is vasculitis?
inflammation of blood vessels
What is Sjogrens disease?
soft tissues become thick and inflexible
very dry eyes and salivary glands
can effect jts and skin
What is the hardening of the skin/excessive deposition of collagen into tissues/thick, inflexible, stiff?
What is the etiology of AIDS?
HIV-detected through blood test
How does AIDS attack the body?
virus enters white blood cells
virus attacks t cells and multiplies
t cells no longer stimulate defense response
immune system weakened
body susceptible to opportunistic diseases
What are the 3 stages of AIDS?
arc- AIDS related complex - decreased immune
AIDS- full blown
What are some common opportunistic infections of AIDS?
herpes virus - mouth
candida-mouth - fungal infection- mouth,lungs
pneumocystitis carnii - lungs, pneumonia
intestinal protozoa- GI- diarrhea
kaposi's sarcoma- LE vascular malignancy
can also directly affect the brain leading to cerebral atrophy and dementia
How can someone be exposed to AIDS?
body fluids especially during sexual contact
IV drug users
blood transfusions not screened for AIDS prior to march 1985
mother can infect newborn
What musculoskeletal system conditions may PT treat in an AIDS pt?
polymyositis- inflammation of many mm
polymyopathy- m weakening
What nervous system conditions may PT treat in an AIDS pt?
CNS infection - brain, spinal cord
What type of emotional reactions may an AIDS pt have?
What are some PT problems associated with PWA?
decreased resp. status
decreased m strength-decondition-fatigue
decreased mobility -> jt motion, skin integrity (thin, tears)
neurological deficits/dysfunction (balance, coordination, abnormal tone, cognition, neuropathies-numbness, tingling)
What are some PT interventions that can be used with AIDS pts?
pain- TENS, ES, US, H20, relaxation techniques
decreased mobility-stretching/strenghtening, posture correction
neurological deficits-facilitation/inhibition techniques, activities appropriate for each deficit
amb- gait training, assistive device
endurance-aerobic exers, monitor vitals
education/safety- protection of skin, maintenance of ROM energy conservation, joint protection, posture
be creative, innovative, flexible