concepts of biology.txt

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concepts of biology.txt
2012-08-31 21:50:49

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    • author "me"
    • fileName "concepts of biology"
    • tags ""
    • description "Lauren biology concepts"
    • scientific study of life
    • 1. the foundation of asking basic questions about life.
    • 2. explanations are sought using scientific method.
  1. limits of science
    1. science cannot provide answers to subject of questions.

    2. cannot provide moral, aesthetic philosophical standards.

    3. the external world, not internal conviction, is the testing ground for scientific ideas.
  2. science and the supernatural
    1. science has run up against religious belief systems

    2. Copernicus suggest that the sun, not the Earth, was center of the universe (1543)

    3. Galileo convicted of heresy for promoting heliocentrism.(1633)

    4. Darwin suggested that life was shaped by nature selection, not a single to creation event. (1859)
  3. The Biological Approach
    1. Make an observation.

    2. Develop hypotheses (educated guesses) using all know information.

    3. Make a prediction of the outcome if the hypothesis is valid.

    4. Test the prediction by experiments, models, and observations.

    4. Repeat the tests for consistency.

    5. Report objesctively on the test results (data) and conclusions.
  4. Scientific Method Steps
    • 1.Observation-objective, unbiased
    • 2.Hypothesis-must be testable, measurable, predictive
    • 3.Experimentation-test of the hypothesis, gathering data
    • 4.Conclusion-analyzing data and comparing back to the hypothesis.
  5.  Variables change
    Independent variable is manipulated by the experimenter. It is part of the experimental design and should be the only difference between experimental groups.

    Dependent variable (the results of the experiment) are affected by the independent variable being tested
  6. Constants
    remain the same among all experimental groups
  7. Control group 
    • 1. A standard for comparison
    • 2. Identical to experimental group except for variable group except for variable being studied.
  8. Sampling error
    • 1. Non-representative sample skews results
    • 2. Minimize by using large samples
  9. Testable  Hypothesis
    • 1. I wonder...
    • 2. What do I know?
    • 3. If I can't reasonably test my hopothesis, this cannot be science!
  10. Theory
    A scientific theory is a well-substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of afcts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment.
  11. Scientific Theories
    So a theory is "a comperhensive explanation of some aspect of nature thatis supported by a vast body of evidence."

    A theory has broader application than ahypothesis. It must accurately describe an entire set of observations and it must accurately predict future results from those observations.

    A theory is not "absolute truth" but it consistent with all other theories and has not been disproved after years of trying.

    The fact that an idea, or even a theory, might be subject to change is a strength of science, not a weakness.