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Which country did the US choose to defeat first during WWII - Germany or Japan?
Where was Corregidor? What did MacArthur do there, and what did he say when he left?
Gave up command.
Did the Japanese say they would respect POW rules? What was the Bataan Death March? Was it better, during WWII, to be in a Japanese or a Nazi POW camp?
- Yes if US surrendered.
- Japs hacked 400 Phil. officers to death while marched for 60 miles with no food or water.
- Nazi - by far.
Why was the Battle of Coral Sea (May 6-7, 1942) important?
Japs stopped from invading Australia.
What was “AF”? How did the US figure this out? What was the Yorktown, and why is it significant? At the battle of Midway (June 3-6, 1942) were the US outnumbered? How was the fighting done at Midway? Why is Midway significant?
- Jap. code for Midway.
- Sent decoy message - "No water at Midway"
- Aircraft Carrier. Had survived Coral Sea. Was prepared for battle in 2 days.
- Yes. US had 3 carriers. Japs had 4.
- Completely air battle.
- Japs lost 1/3 of trained pilots. Changed from offensive to defensive for the first time.
What happened at Stalingrad, beginning in the fall of 1942? What happened in February 1943? Why is this significant?
Germany attacked. Nazis surrendered. First Nazi loss.
When the US decided to invade Italy, where did they attack first? What happened to Mussolini when the allies invaded in 1943? Were the allies able to secure northern Italy in 1943?
- S. Italy?
- No. Could only take southern Italy.
What happened at D-Day? Why is it important?
(June 6, 1944) "Operation Overload" Allies take 5 beaches in France. Allows Allies to move back into Europe.
Why is it important that the US and Britain met the Soviet Union partway into Germany? What was V-E Day?
Hitler commits suicide. Germans surrender. Victory in Europe Day (May 8, 1945).
Was Truman prepared when he became the president?
No. Uninformed by FDR. Had only been VP for a few months.
What happened at Saipan? When did the Japanese begin using kamikazes and where? What types of kamikazes did they have?
Islanders committed suicide when US was landing. October 1944, Philippines. Suicide attackers.
Why did the US take the island of Iwo Jima?
Needed a place to make round trip bombing runs on Japan, without flying over China.
What was the Manhattan Project?
What was the effect of the fire bombing of Tokyo (March 9-10, 1945)?
What was fighting like on Okinawa, and why did it influence their view of an invasion of the Home Islands? What was Kyushu? What were the Japanese planning on doing if Americans invaded? What was the Japanese slogan?
- 88 days, huge casualty.
- Southernmost of home islands.
- All US POW to be killed.
- "100 Million die together"
What were the alternatives to invading Japan, and why did they choose not to do these? Where did they drop the first and second bombs? What is V-J Day?
Demonstration of Atomic Bomb, naval blockade, traditional bombing...heard Germ. was working on an A-bomb. Hiroshima. Nagasaki. August 14, 1945 Japs Surrender.
Were there more civilians or soldiers killed in the war? Which countries had the highest losses? Why is this the case?
Civilians. Allies - Chinese (20 mil.)
What do I mean by saying that the war changed the balance of power in the world?
Now 2 superpowers - US and USSR.
Where did the case Brown v. Board of Education originally come from? How many cases made up Brown by the time it reached the Supreme Court? Who was Earl Warren, and what did he believe about segregation? Was desegregation quick?
Topeka, KS. 5 cases. New Chief Justice. No...no timetable set.
Who signed the Southern Manifesto (1956), and what did it say?
100 senators. Denounced Brown vs. BOE. decision and encouraged defiance.
Where was the school desegregation crisis in 1957? Who was the governor there, and what did he do? How many students were there? What was Eisenhower’s response?
LR, AR. Orval Faubus. Sent National Guard to block students. Sent 1000 army to protect students.
Was the Montgomery Bus Boycott the first boycott? What did Rosa Parks do, and was she the first woman to be arrested? When did the boycott begin and how long did it last?
No. Refused to give up seat in the black section to a white man. No. December 5, 1955. 381 days.
What was the Montgomery Improvement Association (MIA)? Who was its leader? What were their three demands? How did the Alabama Court rule in this case? How did the Supreme Court rule?
Bus boycotters. Dr. MLK. 1. Courteous treatment by bus operators. 2. Seating on first come first serve basis. 3. Black bus drivers. Ruled bus segregation illegal. Same.
What happened in Birmingham in 1963? Who was Bull Connor? Who was George Wallace? What did George Wallace say when two black students tried to attend the University of Alabama?
Black sit-ins. Police Commissioner. Alabama Governor. "Segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"
What did Kennedy call Civil Rights?
“a moral issue… as old as the scriptures… and as clear as the American Constitution”
Where was JFK assassinated? What month and year? When did LBJ become president?
Where was LBJ from? What children impacted him as a teacher?
What was the significance of the 1957 Civil Rights Act? When did the next one get passed?
First in 80+ years. 1960.
How did Johnson use Kennedy’s legacy to get things done?
Platform to continue Kennedy's plans and take them even farther. (Button)
How long was the Civil Rights Act of 1964 filibustered (when it was a bill)? What did the Act do? Who did the act help?
83 Days. Legally ended all segregation (inc. jobs). Helped blacks and women.
Why did activists go to Selma, Alabama in 1965? When this failed, where were they going to march to? What was “Bloody Sunday”?
MLK was jailed. March planned from Selma to Montgomery. Marchers clubbed and gassed by police - "Bloody Sunday"
What did LBJ convince George Wallace to do? What was his argument?
What did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 do?
outlawed voting "qualifications"
What president was the first to give money towards the Vietnam war?
What was Indochina, and what country controlled it as a colony?
area including Vietnam. France?
Who was Ho Chi Minh?
N. Vietnam leader of the Vietminh (freedom fighters against Jap.) Marxist. Communist.
When did the US take a more active role in Vietnam?
1954. France looses battle "Dien Bien Phu"
Who was Ngo Dingh Diem? What did he believe, and what did he do?
Catholic leader in S. Vietnam. Allied with the US. Evil.
How and why did Kennedy commit the US to more involvement in Vietnam?
sent 800 "flood control" troops when Vietnam experienced flooding
What was counterinsurgency?
Guerilla warfare strategy implemented by JFK
Why didn’t Johnson pull the US out of Vietnam?
???He didn't want to be the first president to pull out
What was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, and why was it adopted?
- Congress's order to begin attacks of N. Vietnam
- US spy ship "Maddox" had been fired on (???)
What was Operation Rolling Thunder?
- Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in action.
- Continuous bombing of N. Vietnam.
- Required ground support - costly - ineffective.
What was Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)?
- College war protesters.
- Opposed drafting of college students to Vietnam.
- Turned violent in late 60's.
What was a popular chant against the Vietnam War and the president?
Hey, Hey, LBJ. How many kids did you kill today?