Vegetative Morphology of the Flowering Plants

Card Set Information

Author:
ebalstad
ID:
168410
Filename:
Vegetative Morphology of the Flowering Plants
Updated:
2012-09-01 23:45:24
Tags:
plants morphology
Folders:

Description:
Vocab words on the terminology describing vegetative structure of flowering plants; several terms also apply to nonflowering vascular plants
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user ebalstad on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Living for one year or less
    Annual
  2. Living for two years, typically flowering and fruiting in the second year
    Biennial
  3. Applied to plant parts which fall off early or prematurely
    Caducous
  4. Plants which shed all their leaves at the end of each growing season; also applied to parts of a plant that fall off
    Deciduous
  5. Remaining green during the dormant season, plants never without some leaves
    Evergreen
  6. Withering away or falling off very early
    Fugaceous
  7. Withering or fading, but remaining attached
    Marescent
  8. Living for three years or more
    Perennial
  9. Remaining attached and unwithered
    Persistent
  10. The general appearance/form of plants
    Habit
  11. More or less stemless, the stem often subterranean
    Acaulescent
  12. Tree-like, the main trunk relatively short
    Aborescent
  13. Trees, the trunk well-developed
    Aboreous
  14. Growing in tufts, mats, or clumps
    Caespitose
  15. Aerial stem or stems evident
    Caulescent
  16. Spreading over the undergrowth or objects, usually without the aid of twining stems or tendrils
    Clambering
  17. Ascending upon other plants or objects by means of special structures, such as stems with disc-like tips
    Climbing
  18. Stems lying upon the ground, but with their ends turned up
    Decumbent
  19. Extremely divergent, more or less at a right angle
    Divaricate
  20. Broadly spreading
    Divergent
  21. Shrubby, with more than one major stem
    Fruticose
  22. Bent sharply, as at the knee
    Geniculate
  23. Plants with non-woody aerial stems that die back into the ground each year
    Herbs
  24. Woody plants with elongate, flexible, non-self-supporting stems
    Lianas
  25. Lying flat on the ground, typically without adventitious roots
    Prostate/Procumbent
  26. Stems prostrate, often creeping or crawling and rooting at the node
    Repent/Trailing
  27. Inverted because of a 180-degree twist in a petiole or pedicel
    Resupinate
  28. Bearing a flower or inflorescence on a leafless flowering stem
    Scapose
  29. Woody perennials with more than one principle stem rising from the ground
    Shrubs
  30. Oriented outward and more or less diverting from the point of origin
    Spreading
  31. Plants woody at the base, but herbaceous above
    Suffriticose/Suffrutescent
  32. Woody perennials with a single main stem or trunk
    Trees
  33. Coiling around objects or plants as a means of support
    Twines
  34. Herbaceous plant with elongate, flexible, non-self-supporting stems
    Vines
  35. Those roots which arise at any point other than as a portion of the primary root system
    Adventitious
  36. Those roots occurring above the ground
    Aerial
  37. A root system in which all the roots are relatively the same size so that none is clearly dominant, such as in a monocot
    Fibrous
  38. Roots occurring below the ground
    Subterranean
  39. A root system in which one root is clearly larger than the others, as in many dicots
    Tap
  40. A tap root which is particularly large and fleshy, not entirely delimited from the tap root
    Tuberous
  41. A flattened leaf-like stem
    Cladophyll/Phylloclad
  42. A horizontal stem, often rooting at the nodes, which bears ordinary foliage leaves
    Runner/Stolon
  43. A twining stem, either terminal or arising from the axil of a leaf; may also be of leaf origin
    Tendrils
  44. A sharp-pointed stem, either simple or branched; also see spine and prickle
    Thorn
  45. An upright series of fleshy, overlapping leaf bases attached to a small basal stem, as in the onion
    Bulb
  46. An upright, hard or fleshy stem surrounded by dry scaly leaves, as in the gladiolus "bulb"
    Corm
  47. A horizontal stem with reduced scaly leaves, as in many grasses
    Rhizome
  48. An enlarged fleshy tip of the underground stem, as in an Irish potato
    Tuber
  49. A swollen scaly offshoot of a rhizome
    Turion
  50. The flattened expanded portion of a leaf; a few leaves lack these
    Blade
  51. The point at which the leaf is inserted on the stem
    Node
  52. The region between two successive nodes
    Internode
  53. The stalk which supports the lamina; if missing, the leaf is sessile
    Petiole
  54. A leaf that has no petiole and is directly attached to the node
    Sessile
  55. A pair of appendages located at the base of the petiole where it attaches to the stem; often short lived and only evidenced by scars
    Stipules
  56. A leaf without a pair of stipules at the base of the petiole
    Exstipulate
  57. Arrangement of leaves 
    Phyllotaxy
  58. One leaf at a node
    Alternate
  59. At the base of the plant, the internodes being much reduced
    Basal
  60. The leaves of a well-developed stem, as opposed to basal leaves
    Cauline
  61. Opposite leaves which alternate at right angles at successive nodes, thereby forming four rows of leaves
    Decussate
  62. Two ranked on opposing sides of the stem and in the same plane
    Distichous
  63. Leaves folded about one another in two ranks, as in many members of the Iridaceae
    Equitant 
  64. Clustered
    Fascicled
  65. Overlapping
    Imbricate
  66. Two leaves at a node
    Opposite
  67. A vertical row of leaves (or flowers)
    Rank
  68. A radiating leaf cluster near the base of a plant
    Rosette
  69. Three or more leaves at a node
    Verticillate/Whorled
  70. Term used to describe whether the leaf is represented by a single segment or divided into two or more discrete segments
    Composition
  71. The leaf is made up of one section
    Simple
  72. The leaf is made up of two or more discrete sections
    Compound
  73. In rosettes
    Rosulate
  74. Indented about one-fourth to almost half way to the midrib or the base of the blade
    Lobed
  75. Indented about halfway to midrib or base of the blade
    Cleft
  76. Indented nearly all the way to the midrib or the base of the leaf
    Parted
  77. Indented to the midrib or the base of the blade
    Divided
  78. Separate segments of a compound leaf
    Leaflets
  79. The stalk of a leaflet
    Petiolule
  80. Central axis of a compound leaf
    Rachis
  81. The blade divided only once into first order leaflets, arranged along a rachis
    Once-pinnately compound
  82. A once-pinnately compound leaf with a terminal leaflet
    Odd-pinnate
  83. A once-pinnately compound leaf with no terminal leaflet
    Even-pinnate
  84. The blade divided twice so that the first order of leaflets is split into a second order of leaflets
    Twice-pinnately compount/Bipinnate
  85. The blade divided thrice so that the first-, second-, and third-orders of leaflets are present
    Thrice-pinnately compound/Tripinnate
  86. A compound leaf that is at lead twice-pinnately compound; used to describe when the leaf is divided into many segments of leaflets
    Decompound
  87. The blade divided into leaflets that radiate from the apex of the petiole; no rachis is present
    Palmately/Digitately compound
  88. A palmately compound leaf with three leaflets
    Ternate
  89. A ternate leaf in which the first order leaflets are themselves ternately compound
    Biternate
  90. A compound leaf with three leaflets, these either pinnately or palmately disposed depending upon the relative lengths of the petioles; not to be confused with trifoliate plants
    Trifoliolate
  91. Plants with three leaves
    Trifoliate
  92. Needle-shaped leaf
    Acicular
  93. The shape of a stylized heart, with the petiole between the basal lobes
    Cordate
  94. The leaf shape of an equilateral triangle
    Deltoid
  95. Oval leaf shape, the ends rounded and widest at the middle
    Elliptic
  96. Sickle-shaped leaf
    Falcate
  97. Thread-like leaf
    Filiform
  98. More or less arrowhead-shaped, but with the basal lobes divergent
    Hastate
  99. Lance-shaped leaf, the blade several times longer than it is wide, often widest beneath the middle
    Lanceolate
  100. Leaf shape that is several times longer than it is wide, the sides more or less parallel
    Linear
  101. Leaf shape with a series of pinnate lobes and a longer terminal lobe
    Lyrate
  102. Leaf shape like the cordate, but with the petiole attached to the point of the stylized heart
    Obcordate
  103. Leaf shape like the lanceolate, but with the petiole attached to the narrow pointed end of the leaf
    Oblanceolate
  104. About two or three times longer than broad; rectangle with rounded corners
    Oblong
  105. Leaf shaped like the longitudinal section of a chicken's egg, with the petiole attached to the broad end
    Ovate
  106. Leaf shape like the ovate, but with the petiole attached to the narrow end 
    Obovate
  107. Circular (or nearly so) leaf shape
    Orbicular/rotund
  108. Broadly elliptic leaf shape, with the length less than twice the width
    Oval
  109. Kidney or bean-shaped leaf
    Reniform
  110. Coarsely-toothed with the teeth pointing toward the base of the leaf, as with the sunflower
    Runcinate
  111. Arrowhead-shaped leaf
    Sagittate
  112. Spoon-shaped leaf
    Spatulate/Spathulate
  113. Slender and tapered to a point, as with an awl (a tool used to put holes in leather)
    Subulate
  114. Fine hairs on the leaf margin
    Ciliate
  115. The leaf margin is scalloped with blunt teeth
    Crenate
  116. Leaf margin has course teeth which potrude at right angles
    Dentate
  117. Finely-dentate leaf margin
    Denticulate
  118. The margin has coarse, saw-like teeth that point forward
    Serrate
  119. The serrations on the margin of the leaf are themselves serrate
    Doubly-serrate/Biserrate
  120. The leaf margin is whole and unindented
    Entire
  121. The leaf margin appears as if chewed upon
    Erose
  122. The leaf margin is fringed, the hairs coarser than in ciliate
    Fimbriate
  123. The margin is deeply and sharply cut
    Incised
  124. The leaf margin is slashed into narrow pointed segments
    Lacinate
  125. The leaf margin is rolled toward the lower side of the blade
    Revolute
  126. The leaf margin is finely serrated
    Serrulate
  127. The leaf margin is wavy in and out on the plane of the blade
    Sinuate
  128. The leaf margin is wavy in and out perpendicular to the blade
    Undulate/Crisped
  129. The principle pattern of the veins on the blade
    Venation
  130. Several veins of the same size, though the midrib is typically more conspicuous, all running parallel to each other, as in many monocots
    Parallel
  131. The main vein of the leaf is prominent, with several veins branching from it at 30-45-degree angles along its length
    Pinnate
  132. Complex venation pattern of major and minor veins which form a network or reticulum
    Net
  133. The major veins radiate from a common point at the base of the blade, as in maples
    Palmate
  134. Uncommmon pattern in which the veins curl gently upward
    Arcuate
  135. Leaf apex formed by two straight margins meeting at an angle less than 90 degrees
    Acute
  136. Apex that is acute but whose sides are concave and taper into a fine point
    Acuminate
  137. Leaf apex terminating to a sharp, fine, flexible point
    Apiculate
  138. Leaf apex leads to an abrupt, hard, bristle-like point
    Aristate
  139. Leaf apex is drawn out to a gradual taper
    Attenuate
  140. The leaf apex is tail-like
    Caudate
  141. The apex is shaped by concave edges tapering abruptly to a  sharp point
    Cuspidate
  142. An apex with a shallow notch
    Emarginate
  143. The apex forms a hard, short, abrupt point
    Mucronate
  144. The apex is formed by two lines which meet at an angle greater than 90-degrees
    Obtuse
  145. The apex is gently curved
    Rounded
  146. The apex has a spine at the tip
    Spinose
  147. The apex appears chopped off
    Truncate
  148. A leaf base with rounded lobes that somewhat appear like the human ear
    Auriculate
  149. The base partially-completely surrounds the stem
    Clasping
  150. The base is wedge-shaped
    Cuneate
  151. The base is asymmetrical; unequal-sided
    Oblique
  152. The condition of a sessile leaf when the base completely encloses the stem
    Perfoliate
  153. A leaf much reduced in size, particularly if associated with a flower or influorescence
    Bract
  154. A leaflike petiole of a bladeless leaf, as in some Acadia
    Phyllode/Phyllodium
  155. The basal portion of the leaf that surrounds the stem
    Sheath
  156. A leaf or portion of a leaf that is sharp-pointed, not to be confused with thorns (which are pointed stems) or prickles (outgrowths of the epidermis)
    Spine
  157. A twining leaf or portion of a leaf; can also be a portion of stem
    Tendril
  158. Resembling the surface of a honeycomb
    Alveolate
  159. Not shining, lacking lustre
    Dull
  160. Hairy at first, but then glabrous
    Glabrate
  161. Smooth, without hairs
    Glabrous
  162. Covered with a whitish waxy bloom
    Glaucous
  163. Shining
    Lustrous
  164. A surface with pimple-like protrustions
    Papillate/Papillose
  165. Surface covered in small cavities
    Pitted
  166. Dotted with pinpoint impressions or translucent dots
    Punctate
  167. Netted with regular, slightly elevated lines
    Reticulate
  168. Wrinkled
    Rugose
  169. Covered with minute scales
    Scurfy
  170. Marked with longitudinal lines
    Striated
  171. Furrowed with longitudinal channels
    Sulcate
  172. Warty
    Tuberculate/Verrucose
  173. Sticky
    Viscid
  174. A coating of hairs on the surface of a leaf
    Vestiture/Vesture
  175. Hairs with barbs down the sides
    Barbellate
  176. Hairs barbed at the tip only
    Glochidate
  177. Hooked hairs
    Uncinate
  178. Hairs along the margins only
    Ciliate
  179. With a tuft of hairs at the apex of the seed or the base of a floret in a grass spikelet
    Comose
  180. Coarser, longer ciliate
    Fimbriate
  181. Slender, white, loosely-tangled hairs; cob-webby
    Arachnoid
  182. With tufts of soft hair that come off easily
    Floccose
  183. Woolly or cottony
    Lanate
  184. Densely and softly matted
    Tomentose
  185. With a dense mat of gray-white hairs
    Canescent/Hoary
  186. With straight, often comparatively large prickle-like hairs
    Echinate
  187. Hairs with swollen tips; gland-bearing
    Glandular
  188. With rough or coarse, more or less erect hairs
    Hirsute
  189. Having minute rough, coarse, more or less erect hairs
    Hirtellous
  190. With long, rigid, bristly hairs
    Hispid
  191. Swollen hairs which collectively form a covering that resembles a cooking meal
    Mealy/Farinaceous/Farinose
  192. Hairs that are pimple-like
    Papillate/Papillose
  193. Soft, slender, sparse hairs
    Pilose
  194. A minute cluster of dense, matted, gray-white hair
    Puberulent
  195. Downy; the hairs are short, soft and erect
    Pubescent
  196. Rough to the touch due to coarse, stiff, ascending hairs
    Scabrous
  197. Sily; the hairs are long, fine, and appressed
    Sericeous
  198. Bristly
    Setaceous/Setose
  199. Hairs sharp, appressed, rigid, and often swollen at the base
    Strigose
  200. Velvety; the hairs are dense, firm, and straight
    Velutinous
  201. Shaggy; the hairs are soft, slender, long, but not matted
    Villous
  202. Forked hairs attached at the middle, as with a miner's pick
    Malphigiaceous/Dolabriform
  203. With a few branches or "arms" that arise from a common point; may be sessile or stalked
    Stellate

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview