Vaccinations (Dr. Jackson)

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davis.tiff
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168420
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Vaccinations (Dr. Jackson)
Updated:
2012-09-04 00:57:32
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MICROBIOLOGY INFECTIOUS DISEASES
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MICRO/ID EXAM III
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  1. What are the 3 types of immunizations?
    • 1) Active
    • 2) Passive
    • 3) Post-exposure 
  2. Which immunization type is the most common?
    Active immunization
  3. Which immunization type is passed from mother to fetus?
    Passive
  4. What are the 4 mechanisms of immunization protection?
    • 1) Secondary response
    • 2) Acquired immunity
    • 3) Age of immunization
    • 4) Herd immunity
  5. Match the following.

    1. Secondary response
    2. Acquired immunity
    3. Age of immunization
    4. Herd immunity

    A. May function in concert with innate defenses
    B. Vaccination of a significant proportion of the population which protects non-immune individuals
    C. Affected by circulating maternal Ab
    D. Is rapid
    • 1. D.
    • 2. A.
    • 3. C.
    • 4. B.
  6. What are 3 key features of a "good" vaccine?
    • 1) Induce right type of immune response
    • 2) Induce memory
    • 3) Are stable and inexpensive
  7. What are 2 characteristics of live attenuated vaccines?
    • 1) repeated passage or have cold adaption
    • 2) induce native response
  8. What are the 2 risks associated with live attenuated vaccines?
    • 1) there is a risk of reversion back to wild type
    • 2) contraindicated with immunocompromised patients and/or newborns
  9. When are "killed" vaccines typically used?
    When the risk for reversion is too high
  10. Give an example of a "killed" vaccine.
    Polio vaccine
  11. True or false. "Killed" vaccines are less stable than attenuated vaccines but are more immunogenic.
    False, "killed" vaccines are more stable than attenuated vaccines but are less immunogenic.
  12. What are subcellular vaccines and give an example.
    They are an isolated component of a pathogen that is used to induce immunity. Tetanus toxoid is an example.
  13. Why do capsular polysaccahrides need to be conjugated to toxoids? Give an exmaple.
    Induce poor response; Pneumococcus capsule conjugated to tetanus or diptheria toxoid is an example.
  14. Match the following.

    1. Experimental vaccines
    2. Recombinant vaccines

    A. Plasmid with foreign gene is inserted into plasmid DNA
    B. Recombinat vector is assembled into new vaccine virus particles
    C. Engineered bacterial or viral strains expressing antigens
    D. DNA vaccines designed to encode immunogenic protein in host cell
    • 1. C, D
    • 2. A, B
  15. Which 3 viruses grow better in the cold with regards to the preparation methods for live attenuated vaccines?
    Influenza, respiratory syncytial, rotavirus
  16. Which 5 viruses have multiple passages with regards to the preparation methods for live attenuated vaccines?
    Poliovirus, Measles, Rubella, Mumps, Yellow fever virus
  17. Which pathogens have a capsular polysaccharide that is used as a vaccine component for subcellular vaccines?
    H. influenzae b, Pneumococcus spp., meningococcus spp.
  18. Which pathogens are used in conjunction with diptheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid, respectively, as a subcellular vaccine?
    C. diptheriae, C. tetani
  19. What is the standard age when the US administers the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine?
    1 year
  20. Compare and contrast the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and the attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) with regards to advantages and disadvantages.
    • IPV advantages
    • can't revert to virulence
    • used in immuno compromised
    • OPV advantages
    • oral administration
    • inexpensive
    • natural infection route
    • induces herd immunity
    • IPV disadvantages
    • Parenteral administration
    • expensive
    • no gut immunity
    • OPVdisadvantages
    • reversion to virulence
    • can't be used in immunocompromised
    • requires refrigeration
  21. True or false. Attenuated T. bacillus is only given to high-risk populations in US.
    True
  22. Match the following.

    1. Hepatitis A vaccine
    2. Hepatitis B vaccine

    A. Inactivated and administered IM
    B. Given at birth and at 2 months; for high-risk individuals
    • 1. A
    • 2. B
  23. Occasional severe complications with varicella virus and has led to this recent inclusion of a vaccine as part of childhood immunizations:
    VZV
  24. Influenza vaccinations pose difficulties due to _____ shift and drift of _____ and _____.
    antigenic; hemagglutinin; neuraminidase
  25. What are the 2 main pneumococcal conjugate vaccines?
    • 1) Pneumovax
    • 2) PCV13 (Prevnar 13)
  26. Meningococcal conjugate vaccine mainly helps to immunize against what pathogen?
    N. meningitidis
  27. Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine helps to prevent what disease?
    cervical cancer
  28. Whick 5 known viruses have no available vaccine?
    • 1) HIV
    • 2) HSV
    • 3) CMV
    • 4) EBV
    • 5) Rhinovirus (common cold)
  29. Whick 4 known bacteria have no available vaccine?
    • 1) N. gonorrhaeae
    • 2) M. leprae
    • 3) T. pallidum
    • 4) C. trachomatis
  30. Whick 3 known parasites have no available vaccine?
    • 1) Plasmodium spp.
    • 2) Trypanosoma spp.
    • 3) Schistosoma spp.

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