Vaccinations (Dr. Jackson)
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What are the 3 types of immunizations?
- 1) Active
- 2) Passive
- 3) Post-exposure
Which immunization type is the most common?
Which immunization type is passed from mother to fetus?
What are the 4 mechanisms of immunization protection?
- 1) Secondary response
- 2) Acquired immunity
- 3) Age of immunization
- 4) Herd immunity
Match the following.
1. Secondary response
2. Acquired immunity
3. Age of immunization
4. Herd immunity
A. May function in concert with innate defenses
B. Vaccination of a significant proportion of the population which protects non-immune individuals
C. Affected by circulating maternal Ab
D. Is rapid
What are 3 key features of a "good" vaccine?
- 1) Induce right type of immune response
- 2) Induce memory
- 3) Are stable and inexpensive
What are 2 characteristics of live attenuated vaccines?
- 1) repeated passage or have cold adaption
- 2) induce native response
What are the 2 risks associated with live attenuated vaccines?
- 1) there is a risk of reversion back to wild type
- 2) contraindicated with immunocompromised patients and/or newborns
When are "killed" vaccines typically used?
When the risk for reversion is too high
Give an example of a "killed" vaccine.
True or false. "Killed" vaccines are less stable than attenuated vaccines but are more immunogenic.
False, "killed" vaccines are more stable than attenuated vaccines but are less immunogenic.
What are subcellular vaccines and give an example.
They are an isolated component of a pathogen that is used to induce immunity. Tetanus toxoid is an example.
Why do capsular polysaccahrides need to be conjugated to toxoids? Give an exmaple.
Induce poor response; Pneumococcus capsule conjugated to tetanus or diptheria toxoid is an example.
Match the following.
1. Experimental vaccines
2. Recombinant vaccines
A. Plasmid with foreign gene is inserted into plasmid DNA
B. Recombinat vector is assembled into new vaccine virus particles
C. Engineered bacterial or viral strains expressing antigens
D. DNA vaccines designed to encode immunogenic protein in host cell
Which 3 viruses grow better in the cold with regards to the preparation methods for live attenuated vaccines?
Influenza, respiratory syncytial, rotavirus
Which 5 viruses have multiple passages with regards to the preparation methods for live attenuated vaccines?
Poliovirus, Measles, Rubella, Mumps, Yellow fever virus
Which pathogens have a capsular polysaccharide that is used as a vaccine component for subcellular vaccines?
H. influenzae b, Pneumococcus spp., meningococcus spp.
Which pathogens are used in conjunction with diptheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid, respectively, as a subcellular vaccine?
C. diptheriae, C. tetani
What is the standard age when the US administers the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine?
Compare and contrast the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) and the attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) with regards to advantages and disadvantages.
- IPV advantages
- can't revert to virulence
- used in immuno compromised
- OPV advantages
- oral administration
- natural infection route
- induces herd immunity
- IPV disadvantages
- Parenteral administration
- no gut immunity
- reversion to virulence
- can't be used in immunocompromised
- requires refrigeration
True or false. Attenuated T. bacillus is only given to high-risk populations in US.
Match the following.
1. Hepatitis A vaccine
2. Hepatitis B vaccine
A. Inactivated and administered IM
B. Given at birth and at 2 months; for high-risk individuals
Occasional severe complications with varicella virus and has led to this recent inclusion of a vaccine as part of childhood immunizations:
Influenza vaccinations pose difficulties due to _____ shift and drift of _____ and _____.
antigenic; hemagglutinin; neuraminidase
What are the 2 main pneumococcal conjugate vaccines?
- 1) Pneumovax
- 2) PCV13 (Prevnar 13)
Meningococcal conjugate vaccine mainly helps to immunize against what pathogen?
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine helps to prevent what disease?
Whick 5 known viruses have no available vaccine?
- 1) HIV
- 2) HSV
- 3) CMV
- 4) EBV
- 5) Rhinovirus (common cold)
Whick 4 known bacteria have no available vaccine?
- 1) N. gonorrhaeae
- 2) M. leprae
- 3) T. pallidum
- 4) C. trachomatis
Whick 3 known parasites have no available vaccine?
- 1) Plasmodium spp.
- 2) Trypanosoma spp.
- 3) Schistosoma spp.
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