Special Senses

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SeanOHair
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Special Senses
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2012-09-05 02:10:46
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ANAT 151 Crafton Hills College
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Chapter 15 - Special Senses
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  1. These are the four special senses.
    • Olfaction
    • Gustation (taste)
    • Auditory (hearing and balance)
    • Vision
  2. T/F: One olfactory receptor can respond to several types of stimuli.
    True
  3. Olfactory neurons are imbedded in this.
    Olfactory epithelium
  4. How do we physically percieve odors?
    Odorants are dissolved in the olfactory mucus and stimulate the neurons imbedded there
  5. What makes olfactory neurons different from other types of neurons?
    They regenerate periodically
  6. How often do olfactory neurons regenerate?
    About every 2 months
  7. What cells replace/regenerate olfactory neurons?
    Basal cells
  8. T/F: Olfaction is a G-protein-mediated mechanism involving a complex with Polypeptide C.
    False, the complex involves adenylate cylase
  9. This G-protein subunit dissociates and activates adenylate cyclase in olfaction.
    Alpha unit
  10. After activation, adenylate cyclase catalyses the conversion of __________ into ___________.
    ATP ; cAMP
  11. What triggers the release of the G-protein from the receptor?
    Binding of a dissolved odorant
  12. T/F: After adenylate cyclase is activated, it converts cAMP into ATP which binds to cation channels and allows the influx of cations into the cell causing depolarization.
    False, it converts ATP into cAMP
  13. Fix the errors in this list of steps in the perception of olfaction:

    1.Odorant dissolves in the extracellular fluid of the olfactory neuron
    2.Odorant binds to receptor
    3. G-protein attaches to the receptor and dissociates
    4. Beta subunit attaches to Phospholipase C
    5. Phopholipase C catalyzes the conversion of cAMP into ADP
    6. ADP binds to anion channels, which allow the influx of Cl- ions
    7. Influx of Cl- ions depolarizes the cell and triggers an action potential
    • 1.Odorant dissolves in the nasal mucus
    • 2.Odorant binds to receptor
    • 3. G-protein detaches from the receptor and dissociates
    • 4. Alpha subunit attaches to adenylate cyclase
    • 5. Adenylate cyclase catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cAMP
    • 6. cAMP binds to cation channels, which allow the influx of various cations
    • 7. Influx of cations depolarizes the cell and triggers an action potential
  14. Olfactory neurons in the olfactory epithelium pass through what feature in what bone?
    Cribiform plate of the Ethmoid bone
  15. Olfactory neurons pass through the bone and synapse with __________ or __________ in the __________.
    • Mitral cells
    • Tufted cells
    • Olfactory bulbs
  16. T/F: Mitral and Tufted cells extend to the thalamus where they synapse with association neurons.
    False, they extend to the olfactory tract.  Olfaction does not pass through the thalamus!
  17. This lobe of the brain is associated with olfaction.
    Frontal lobe
  18. T/F: Olfactory neurons from the olfactory tract synapse directly with neurons in the olfactory cortex (in the frontal lobe) without passing through the thalamus.
    True
  19. T/F: Olfactory neurons are imbedded in the olfactory epithelium and are unipolar cells.
    False, they are bipolar cells.  One side extends dendrites down into the mucus, the other is an axon extending into the olfactory bulb through the cribiform plate
  20. What does the medial olfactory area do?
    Associates visceral and emotonal reaction to odors (makes you recoil from or seek out the smells)
  21. What does the intermediate olfatory area do?
    It moderates the olfactory neurons (acclimates you to smells by attenuating consistent inputs))
  22. What does the lateral olfactory area do?
    Consciously percieves smells (detects and identifies smells)
  23. T/F: The intermediate olfactory area receives inputs from the medial and lateral areas, then projects neurons back into the olfactory bulbs.
    True (these are the pathways it uses to regulate olfactory activity)
  24. What are the types of tongue papillae?
    • Filiform
    • Vallate
    • Fungiform
    • Foliate
  25. What are the types of taste papillae?
    • Vallate
    • Fungiform
    • Foliate
  26. Where are filiform papillae found?
    All over the tongue
  27. Where are vallate papillae found?
    8 - 12 of them in a V-shape near the posterior aspect of the tongue
  28. Where are fungiform papillae found?
    All over the tongue
  29. Where are foliate papillae found?
    Lateral folds of the tongue
  30. What do filiform papillae look like?
    • In situ: Shredded meat (give the tongue its "fuzzy" appearance
    • Cross-section: Filamentous
  31. What do vallate papillae look like?
    • In situ: raised bumps or buttons
    • Cross-section: large knob or wedge
  32. What do fungiform papillae look like?
    • In situ: Little red or pink spots scattered over the surface of the tongue
    • Cross-section: Mushroom cap cross-section
  33. What do foliate papillae look like?
    • In situ: can't see them in the lateral folds
    • Cross-section: leaf-shaped
  34. T/F: Tastes must be dissolved in saliva to be percieved.
    True
  35. How are taste buds held in place?
    They are surrounded by supporting cells
  36. T/F: Taste buds have microvilli that extend into a pore to percieve taste.
    True (this is why flavors must be dissolved in saliva to be percieved)
  37. How often are taste buds replaced?
    About every 10 days
  38. What is the only papilla that is not associated with taste?
    Filiform
  39. What type of papilla is most numerous on the tongue?
    Filiform
  40. T/F: The microvilli on taste bud cells are also called gustatory cilia.
    False, they are called gustatory hairs
  41. The tip of the tongue has the highest concentration of receptors for these tastes.
    • Salt
    • Sweet
  42. Salt receptors are located here.
    Tip of the tongue
  43. Sweet receptors are located here.
    Tip of the tongue
  44. Sour receptors are located here.
    Lateral aspects of the tongue
  45. Bitter receptors are located here
    Posterior of the tongue
  46. This is the taste humans are most sensitive to.
    Bitter
  47. The sensation of this taste is produced directly through the influx of metal cations.
    Salt
  48. These tastes are craved by humans.
    • Salt
    • Umami
  49. The sensation of this taste is produced by the effect of H+ ions on channel proteins.
    Sour
  50. The sensation of these tastes is produced via a G-protein complex involving adenylate cyclase.
    • Sweet
    • Umami
  51. The sensation of this taste is produced via a G-protein complex involving Phospholipase C.
    Bitter
  52. These tastes are sensed directly due to cations in the substance being tasted.
    • Salt
    • Sour
  53. These tastes involve a G-protein complex of some sort.
    • Umami
    • Sweet
    • Bitter
  54. The receptors for this taste are scattered all about the tongue.
    Umami
  55. Umami receptors are located here.
    All about the tongue
  56. T/F: Bitter is a taste produced through a G-protein complex involving adenylate cyclase.
    False, the complex involves phospholipase C
  57. In what ways can H+ ions effect the sour taste?
    • Direct diffusion of the H+ into the cell via a H+ ion channel protein
    • Binding to K+ channel proteins which close and prevent K+ from leaving the cell
    • Binding to and opening ligand-gated channels that permit other cations to enter the cell
  58. These tastes depend on the influx of some cation(s) into the cell from outside.
    • Salt
    • Sour
    • Umami
  59. This taste results from the release of intracellular stores of Ca2+.
    Bitter
  60. This taste results from phosphorylation of K+ channels, which causes them to close and prevent K+ from leaving the cell.
    Sweet
  61. T/F: Sweet and sour can both be triggered by the phosphorylation of K+ ion channels.
    False, sweet is triggered this way but sour is triggered through the binding of H+ to K+ gated channel proteins.
  62. What compounds trigger the bitter taste?
    Alkaloids
  63. Why is bitter the most sensitive taste in humans?
    Many alkaloid compounds are poisonous and high sensitivity to them would prevent us from ingesting them
  64. In the Bitter taste, what does activated phospholipase C do?
    It converts phosphoinositol (PIP2) into inositol triphosphate (IP3), which then triggers the release of intracellular Ca2+ stores causing depolarization.
  65. What compounds can trigger the sweet taste?
    • Sugars
    • CHO
    • Some proteins (ex: aspartame)
  66. What compound trigger the umami taste?
    Amino acids
  67. What compounds trigger the sour taste?
    Acids
  68. What compounds trigger the salt taste?
    Salts (anything with a metal cation component that dissociates in saliva)
  69. The chorda tympani is a portion of what nerve?
    CN VII (Facial)
  70. The chorda tympani carries sensation from what portion of the tongue?
    Anterior 2/3
  71. This nerve carries sensation from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
    Chorda tympani portion of CN VII (Facial)
  72. This nerve carries sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue.
    CN IX (Glossopharyngeal)
  73. CN IX (Glossopharyngeal) carries sensation from what portion ofthe tongue?
    Posterior 1/3
  74. Sensation on the base of the tongue is carried by what nerve?
    CN X (Vagus)
  75. CN X (Vagus) carries sensation from what portion of the tongue?
    Base
  76. T/F: Sensation from the posterior 2/3 of the tongue is carried on CN IX (Glossopharyngeal).
    False, CN IX (Glossopharngeal) carries sensation from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue
  77. T/F: The chorda tympani carries sensation from the anteior 2/3 of the tongue.
    True
  78. This is the region of the brainstem that all taste sensation nerves synapse with.
    Tractus solitarius
  79. Nerves in the tractus solitarius synapse with other neurons where?
    Thalamus
  80. External structures of vision.
    • Eyebrow
    • Eyelids
    • Eyelashes
    • Conjunctiva
  81. Another name for eyelids.
    Palpebrae
  82. What is the palpebral fissure?
    The opening between the top and bottom eyelids
  83. What are the Canthi and what flavors do they come in?
    Canthi are the corners of the eyes where the palpebrae meet and they come in medial & lateral flavors
  84. How is the medial canthus different from the lateral canthus?
    The medial canthus has the caruncle
  85. What is a caruncle?
    It is a collection of modified sweat and sebaceous glands in the medial canthus
  86. What gives the palpebra its shape?
    A layer of dense connective tissue called the tarsal plate
  87. What do ciliary glands do?
    Modified sweat glands for the eyelashes
  88. These glands produce sebum at the inner margins of the eyelids.
    Meibomian glands
  89. The layer of transparent mucous membrane that covers the inner aspect of the eyelids is called the __________.
    Palpebral conjunctiva
  90. The transparent mucous membrane lining the sclera of the eye is called the __________.
    Bulbar conjunctiva
  91. T/F: Although they abut, the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva are not actually connected to each other.
    False, the conjunctiva is a solid sheet of transparent mucous membrane and the two sections are so named based on their location only.
  92. The turn where the conjunctiva folds back on itself to line the inner surface of the eyelid is called the __________.
    Conjunctival fornix (inferior or superior)
  93. Where is the lacrimal gland located?
    Superolateral margin of the eyelid
  94. What is the function of the lacrimal gland?
    Secretes tears to flush the eyes
  95. Why does your nose run when you cry?
    Tears enter the puncta near the medial canthus and drain through the lacrimal canaliculi to the lacrimal sac, which empties into the nasolacrimal duct and finally into the nasal cavity causing your nose to run
  96. What are the extrinsic muscles of the eye and what is their action?
    • Superior rectus (elevates eye)
    • Inferior rectus (depresses eye)
    • Lateral rectus (helps abduct eye)
    • Medial rectus (adducts eye)
    • Superior oblique (depress and abduct eye)
    • Inferior oblique (elevate and abduct eye)
  97. What nerve innervates each extrinsic muscle of the eye?
    • SO4LR6AL3
    •      Superior oblique - CN IV (Trochlear)
    •      Lateral rectus - CN VI (Abducens)
    •      All the others - CN III (Oculomotor)
  98. What are the three layers of the eye called?
    Tunica
  99. What are the three tunica named?
    • Fibrous tunic
    • Vascular tunic
    • Nervous tunic
  100. What comprises the tunica?
    • Fibrous tunic = sclera and cornea (this is the outermost tunic)
    • Vascular tunic = choroid, ciliary body, and iris
    • Nervous tunic = retina (this is the innermost tunic)
  101. What is the ciliary body comprised of?
    • Ciliary muscle
    • Ciliary ring
    • Ciliary processes
  102. What is the sclera made of?
    Dense collagenous connective tissue with some elastic fibers thrown in
  103. What is the cornea made of?
    A matrix of transparent connective tissues containing collagen, elastic fibers, and proteoglycans with a layer of stratified squamous epithelium on the exterior surface
  104. What is the function of the sclera?
    Maintain the shape of the eye and provide muscle attachment
  105. What is the function of the cornea?
    Allows light to enter the eye and also refracts that light into the lens
  106. T/F: The sclera is vascular (since you can see the arteries in the whites of your eyes)
    False, the fibrous tunic is avascular
  107. T/F: The cornea and sclera are contiguous
    True
  108. T/F: The choroid is associated with the sclera.
    True
  109. Why would the choroid be pigmented?
    Prevents scattering of light rays in the eye to enhance visual acuity
  110. What does the ciliary body do (as a whole)
    Produces the aqueous humor
  111. T/F: Aqueous humor is produced by the ciliary body and fills only the anterior chamber.
    False, it fills both the anterior and posterior chambers
  112. What do the ciliary muscles do?
    Control the shape of the lens
  113. What muscle consticts the pupil?
    Sphincter pupillae muscles (encircle the iris)
  114. What muscles dialate the pupil?
    Technically, none.  While not exactly muscles, a modified form of epithelial cells (called myoepithelial cells) form the dilator pupillae and they are arranged around the iris like spokes on a wheel.
  115. T/F: The sphincter pupillae muscles are innervated by neurons of the sympathetic nervous system.
    False, during sympathetic stimulation the pupils will dilate, not consrict
  116. T/F: The sphincter pupillae muscles have parasympathetic innervation.
    True, because the dilators are controlled by smpathetic innervation
  117. T/F: Pupillary muscles are a modified type of skeletal muscle.
    False, they are smooth muscle (you have no conscious control of them)
  118. What are the two layers of the nervous tunic?
    • Pigmented retina (outer layer)
    • Neuronal retina (inner layer)
  119. Which layer of the nervous tunic houses the sensory cells?
    Nervous retina
  120. Why is the outer layer of the nervous tunic pigmented?
    For the same reason as the choroid: it prevents light rays from scattering in the eye
  121. Name the order of the structures that light hits as it enters the eye
    • Stratified squamous epithelium of cornea
    • Connective tissue layer of cornea
    • Passes through the aqueous humor in the anterior chamber
    • Passes through the pupillary opening of the iris
    • Lens
    • Vitreous humor
    • Nerve fibers of the optic nerve
    • Neuronal retina
    •      Ganglionic cell layer
    •      Inner plexiform cell layer
    •      Bipolar layer
    •      Outer plexiform layer
    •      Photoreceptor layer
    • Pigmented retina
  122. T/F: When light strikes the retina, the photoreceptors are the first thing it hits.
    False, the light rays must pass through the optic nerve fibers and then through 4 layers of cells before they even have a chance to be detected by the photoreceptors
  123. T/F: Light rays detected by the photoreceptors and the action potentials they create travel in opposite directions within the sensory retina.
    True, the action potential travels toward the pupil while the light rays travel toward the wings of the sphenoid bone behind the eye
  124. What do rods do?
    Provide low-acuity, non-colored vision in low-light conditions and detect motion
  125. What do cones do?
    Provide high acuity, colored vision
  126. What is the main distribution of rods in the retina?
    Cover most of the retina (except the macula and the fovea centralis)
  127. What is the main distribution of the cones in the retina?
    The macula and the fovea centralis
  128. What is the fovea centralis?
    A pit in the center of the macula lutea where your vision is the most acute.
  129. What are the boundaries of the anterior chamber of the eye?
    Between the iris and cornea
  130. What are the boundaries of the posterior chamber?
    From the lens to the iris
  131. This is an abnormal increase in intraocular pressure.
    Glaucoma
  132. Where is the aqueous humor produced?
    Ciliary body of the vascular tunic
  133. Where is the aqueous humor reabsorbed?
    It is absorbed into the bloodstream through the canal of Schlemm (scleral venous sinus) located where the cornea and sclera meet
  134. What are the functions of the vitreous humor?
    • Maintains shape of eye
    • Refracts light
    • Keeps lens and retina in place
  135. This is clouding of the normally transparent lens.
    Cataract
  136. T/F: Rods have little or no convergence while cones exhibit spatial summation (convergence) of synapses down to ganglion cells.
    False, Rods spatially sum while cones do not (that's why cones have greater acuity)
  137. T/F: The medial portion of either visual field will always cross over contralateral at the optic chiasm.
    False, they remain ipsilateral because this information is carried on the lateral retina
  138. T/F: The medial portion of the retina will always cross over contralateral at the optic chiasm.
    True, the retinal input crosses because it carries information about the lateral visual field
  139. T/F: The lateral portion of either visual field will always cross contralateral at the optic chiasm.
    True, because this information is carried on the medial retina
  140. T/F: The lateral portion of the retina will always cross contralateral at the optic chiasm.
    False, they always stay ipsilateral
  141. T/F: Action potentials generated by the photoreceptors travel contra to the incoming light rays and exit the eye via ganglionic cell axons, which form CN II (Optic).
    False, photoreceptors do not generate action potentials, ganglionic cells do that
  142. Decribe the path of the "visual" action potential when the eye is struck by light from the medial visual field.
    • AP is generated by ganglionic cell on lateral retina
    • AP travels down ganglionic axon (which becomes part of the optic nerve)
    • This axon travels to optic chiasm, but does not cross
    • This axon becomes part of the ipsilateral optic tract carrying the AP to the ipsilateral lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
    • Here the AP crosses a synapse, entering the ipsilateral optic radiations that carry it to the ipsilateral visual cortex
  143. Decribe the path of the "visual" action potential when the eye is struck by light from the lateral visual field.
    • AP is generated by ganglionic cell on the medial retina
    • AP travels down ganglionic axon (which becomes part of the optic nerve)
    • This axon travels to the optic chiasm and crosses over to the contralateral side
    • This axon becomes part of the contralateral optic tract carrying the AP to the contralateral lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus
    • Here the AP crosses a synapse, entering the contralateral optic radiations that carry it to the contralateral visual cortex
  144. Why do axons carrying visual input to the geniculate nuclei also have collateral branches that synapse in the superior colliculi of the midbrain?
    The colliculi control reactions based on visual input, but do not process visual information.  They do not cause you to "see," they cause you to duck when something is coming at you.
  145. What is the visual pigment in rods?
    Rhodopsin (visual purple)
  146. What is the visual pigment in cones?
    Iodopsin (photopsin)
  147. What is the inevitable consequence to our vision of the photoreceptors only producing local graded potentials (rather than AP's)?
    Because spatial summation from hundreds of rods can converge on one ganglion cell it is possible for very weak input (low light) to trigger an action potential, but because hundreds of cells are involved the image is 'grainy.'  Since cones in the fovea centralis do not converge it takes a much higher amount of input (daylight) to trigger an action potential in the ganglion cell it synapses with, but because only one cone cell is involved the image is much more distinct.
  148. What is the definition of refraction?
    Bending light
  149. What is the defnition of convergence (with respect to light rays)?
    Light striking a convex surface
  150. What is the definition of focal point?
    The point where light rays meet and cross
  151. Is emmetropia a good thing?
    Yes, it refers to focusing on objects far enough away that you do not need to flatten the lens (normal, relaxed vision)
  152. What is meant by the far point of vision?
    The distance from the eye (~20 ft) that an object must be to be in focus without thickening the lens (minimum distance of emmetropic vision)
  153. What is meant by the near point of vision?
    The minimum distance from the eye that an object can still be focused on (shortest distance to an object where the eye can still focus on it)
  154. T/F: When relaxed, the ciliary muscles are not pulling tension on the lens and it is a more rounded shape for near vision.
    False, relaxation of the ciliary muscles pulls tension on the suspensory ligaments and flattens the lens for far vision
  155. What is accomodation?
    When the ciliary muscles contract the ciliary body shrinks in diameter, which reduces tension on the suspensory ligaments and allows the lens to bulge into a more rounded shape.  This is how you focus on objects lying between the far point and near point of vision.
  156. What is convergence?
    When the eyes "cross" to keep a near object in sight (due to reflex contraction of the medial recti)
  157. When you focus on near objects, your eyes exhibit miosis.  What is it and why does it occur?
    Miosis is the involuntary constriction of the pupil and it occurs to 'filter' out distracting input so you can focus more exclusively on the near object.
  158. What is myopia?
    What causes it?
    How is it corrected?
    • Myopia is 'nearsightedness'
    • It is caused by the eye being too long (increase in distance from lens to retina), which causes the light rays to converge in front of the retina
    • It is corrected with a concave lens that refracts the light rays away from each other before they enter the eye, moving the focal point posteriorly in the eye
  159. What is hyperopia?
    What causes it?
    How is it corrected?
    • Hyperopia is 'farsightedness'
    • It is caused by the eye being too short (reduction in the distance from the lens to the retina), which causes the light rays to converge somewhere behind the retina
    • It is corrected with a convex lens that refracts the light rays toward each other before entering the eye, moving the focal point anteriorly in the eye
  160. What is presbyopia?
    What causes it?
    How is it corrected?
    • Presbyopia is a reduction in the eye's ability to accomodate
    • It is caused by stiffening of the eye-lens wih age
    • It is corrected with reading glasses or bifocal lenses
  161. What is the cause of astigmatism?
    Cornea or lens not curved properly
  162. What constitutes the outer ear?
    Auricle, external auditory canal, outer surface of the tympanic membrane
  163. What constitutes the middle ear?
    Inner surface of tympanic membrane, auditory (Eustacian) tube, malleus,incus, and stapes
  164. What constitutes the inner ear?
    Cochlea and semi-circular canals
  165. T/F: the middle ear is fluid-filled.
    False, it is air-filled
  166. What are the auditory ossicles?
    Small bones in the middle ear (malleus, incus, stapes)
  167. What muscle attaches to the stapes and what nerve innervates it?
    The stapedius, innervated by CN VII (Facial)
  168. What muscle attaches to the malleus and what nerve innervates it?
    The tensor tympani muscle, innervated by CN V (Trigeminal)
  169. What is the function of the middle ear muscles?
    During loud noises, they contract to try to brace the ossicles and prevent damage
  170. These are the two labyrinths of the inner ear.
    Bony and Membranous
  171. What constitutes the bony labyrinth?
    The passageways in the bone that house the hearing/balance organs
  172. What constitutes the membranous labyrinth?
    The hearing/balance organs housed in the bony labyrinth
  173. This senses changes in static balance
    Vestibule
  174. This macula of the vestibule is parallel to the floor of the skull.
    Utricle
  175. This macula of the vestibule is perpedicular to the floor of the skull.
    Saccule
  176. This senses changes in kinetic (dynamic) balance.
    Semi-circular canals
  177. This is the fluid that fills the non-sensory canals in the membranous labyrinth.
    Perilymph
  178. This is the fluid that fills the sensory canal in the membranous labyrinth.
    Endolymph
  179. The sensory canal in the membranous labyrinth has two names.  What are they?
    Cochlear duct and scala media
  180. The superior non-sensory canal in the membranous labyrinth is called what?
    Scala vestibuli
  181. The inferior non-sensory canal in the membranous labyrinth is called what?
    Scala tympani
  182. The wall of the scala vestibuli is called what?
    Vestibular membrane
  183. T/F: The hair cells in the Organ of Corti perceive sound by vibrating against the vestibular membrane.
    False, they vibrate against the tectoral membrane
  184. The wall of the scala tympani is called what?
    Basilar membrane
  185. The sensory organ of hearing is called what?
    Organ of Corti (Spiral organ)
  186. How does hearing actually occur?
    • Vibrations are detected by the tympanic membrane
    • Tympanic membrane transmits vibrations to the ossicles
    • Stapes transmits vibrations to the oval window
    • Oval window transmits vibrations to the perilymph of the scala vestibuli
    • The perilymph transmits vibrations to the vestibular membrane
    • Vestibular membrane transmits vibrations to the endolymph of the scala media (cochlear duct)
    • Endolymph of the scala media transmits vibratons to the basilar membrane
    • Hair cells in the Organ of Corti are attached to the basilar membrane and they begin to vibrate, rubbing against the tectoral membrane
    • Voila! Sound.
  187. How do we detect pitch in sound?
    The sound's perceived pitch depends on the position of the hair cells that vibrate.  High-pitched sounds have a short wavelength and will vibrate hair cells near the oval window.  Low-pitched sounds have a longer wavelength and will vibrate hair cells farther from the oval window.
  188. Where is the auditory cortex located?
    Temporal lobes
  189. T/F: Hearing is the only sense that does not synapse in the thalamus on its way to its cortex.
    False, the only sense that does not go through the thalamus is smell
  190. T/F: The balance organs detect position
    False, they detect changes in the rate of motion
  191. The sensory portion of the utricle and saccule are called what?
    Macula
  192. Describe the macula in the utricle and saccule.
    Specialized epithelium of columnar hair cells with many stereocilia (microvilli) and one true cillium emedded in a gelatinous goo studded with otoliths that stimulate the hair cells with varying frequencies.
  193. T/F: Kinetic balance is perceived via the use of otoliths in a gelatinous mass stimulating hair cells.
    False, this is how static (vestibular) balance is perceived
  194. What are the bulges in the semi-circular canals called?
    Ampullae
  195. What is in the semi-circular canals?
    Endolymph
  196. What is the crista ampullaris?
    A bulge in the epithelium of the ampullae that houses the sensory hair cells
  197. What structure stimulates the hair cells of the crista ampullaris?
    A gelatinous cap called the cupula
  198. T/F: Balance structures sense motion.
    False, they sense changes in the rate of motion, not motion itself
  199. T/F: Vestibular neurons send information to the motor nuclei for the extrinsic eye muscles.
    True

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