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-Clothes (symbols, letters) show thoughts
-Aristotle saw we seek in patterns
-Inference: mental jumps
-Reasoning: is a method
-Product: is the conclusion
4 Modes of Speech
1. Question (?)
-Basic idea (function) is to get some kind of information.
2. Exclamation (!)
-Function is sound or noise.
3. Command (.)
-Function is to get someone to do something
4. Declarative (.)
-Declaring something to be the case.
-Only mode that can be true or false; must be either true or false.
Objective Theory of Truth
“All declarative sentences (propositions) are either true or false, even if when we use them we don’t know.”
If it’s true than it will always be true, the same for false.
-Has to do with the context of the statement.
-Example: “The sun goes around the Earth.”
-Reasons why people thought this was true.
-1. Empirical data; evidence.
-If a sentence is true it can never have a
-Personal opinions are declarative sentences.
-An argument is a “piece of reasoning” in which one or more propositions are used in support of another.