PSYC 320 Lesson 3

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PSYC 320 Lesson 3
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2012-09-02 15:22:17
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PSYC 320 Lesson
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  1. Blue eyes are an example of a ______.
    phenotype
  2. Chromosomes ______ genetic information.
    store and transmit
  3. A ______ is a segment of a ______ molecule.
    gene; DNA
  4. If the alleles from both parents are different at the same place on a pair of chromosomes, the child is said to be ______.
    heterozygous
  5. Gametes contain ______ chromosomes.
    23
  6. ______ is a situation in which two different alleles for a genetic trait are being expressed.
    codominance
  7. Most chromosomal defects are results of mistakes during ______.
    meiosis
  8. The most common chromosomal abnormality is _______.
    Down's syndrome
  9. A/an ______ involves high-frequency sound waves that are beamed at the uterus.
    ultrasound
  10. Fertilization usually takes place in the
    fallopian tubes
  11. Pregnancy can be divided into three phases. The order in which they occur is:
    • - zygote
    • - embryo
    • - fetus
  12. The zygote is:
    the union of sperm and ovum at conception
  13. What takes place during the period of the zygote?
    • - the blastocyst is formed
    • - the fertilized ovum begins to duplicate at an increasingly rapid rate
    • - the amnion forms and encloses the developing organism in amniotic fluid
  14. The outer membrane that forms a protective covering around the prenatal organism and sends out tiny hairlike villi, from which the placenta begins to emerge is called the:
    chorion
  15. The period of the embryo is defined as:
    the prenatal organism from 2 to 8 weeks after conception, during which time the foundations of all body structures and internal organs are laid down
  16. The period of the embryo is particularly critical because:
    the groundwork for all body structures and internal organs is laid down
  17. The age of viability is reached somewhere between:
    22 and 26 weeks
  18. A teratogen is best defined as:
    any environmental agen that causes damage during the prenatal period
  19. What are defects that result from fetal alcohol syndrome?
    • - facial abnormalities
    • - impaired motor coordination
    • - mental retardation
  20. Maternal age is a factor in what?
    chromosomal defects
  21. The longest stage of labor is:
    dilation and effacement of the cervix
  22. Some possible consequences of anesthesia include:
    • - weakened uterine contractions during the first stage of labor
    • - interference with mother's ability to feel contractions and push during the second stage of labor
    • - use of forceps or a vacuum extractor
  23. What are conditions that causes anoxia?
    • - squeezing of the umbilical cord
    • - incompatability between mother and baby in Rh factor
  24. Small for date infants are:
    infants whose birth weight is below normal when length of pregnancy is taken into account
  25. Heritability estimate is defined as:
    a statistic that measures the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors
  26. The tendency to actively choose environments that complement our heredity is called:
    niche-picking
  27. How is DNA different from all other molecules?
    • - it duplicates itself through mitosis
    • - a long, double stranded molecule
    • - consists of pairs of chemical substances called bases
    • - allows for a single cell to develop into a complex human being
  28. Zygote
    • - united sperm and ovum through fertilization
    • - has 46 chromosomes
  29. Crossing Over
    • - chromosomes next to each other break at one or more points along their length and exchange segments
    • - genes from one are replaced by genes from another
    • - creates new hereditary combinations
    • - chromosome pairs separate into different cells
    • - chance determines which member of each pair will gather with others and end up in the same gamete
    • - each chromosome leaves its partner and becomes part of a gamete containing only 23 chromosomes
  30. Polygenic inheritances
    a pattern of inheritance in which many genes determine a characteristic that varies on a continuum among people
  31. Midifier genes
    enhance or dilute the effects of other genes
  32. What characteristics are likely to show polygenic inheritance?
    • - height
    • - weight
    • - intelligence
    • - personality
  33. Inheritance patterns for blood type
    • type A - dominant
    • type B - dominant
    • type O - recessive
  34. defective genes vs. defective chromosomes
    • - defective chromosomes are more harmful
    • - defective chromosomes almost always result in miscarriage
    • - gene defects usually do not cause chromosome structure or number to be abnormal
  35. Down's Syndrome
    • - 1 in 1000 births
    • - result of failure of 21st pair of chromosomes to separate (individual has 3 of these chromosomes instead of 2)
    • - mental retardation, memory and speech problems, limited vocabulary, slow motor development
    • - small brain
    • - short, stocky body; flattened face; protruding tongue; almond shaped eys; unusual crease in palm of hand
    • - eye cataracts, hearing loss, heart and intestinal defects
  36. Turner's Syndrome
    • - 1 in 2500 to 8000 female births
    • - missing X chromosome
    • - short stature; webbed neck, thyroid and heart
    • abnormalities; incomplete development of sex characteristics at puberty; sterility; impaired spatial intelligence
    • - requires hormone therapy and special education
  37. Klinefelter's Syndrome
    • - 1 in 900 male births
    • - extra X chromosome
    • - tallness; body fat distribution similar to
    • females; incomplete development of sex characteristics at puberty; sterility; impaired verbal intelligence
    • - requires hormone therapy and special education
  38. XYY Syndrome
    • - 1 in 1000 male births
    • - extra Y chromosome
    • - above-average height; large teeth; severe acne; intelligence and sexual development are normal
    • - no special treatmentnecessary
  39. Fragile X Syndrome
    • - repetition of gene FMR1 on X chromosome
    • - most common form of ID in boys
    • - delay in gross motor skills; mental retardation; hyperactivity or impulsive behavior; speech and language delay; tendency to avoid eye contact
    • - flat feet; flexible joints; low muscle tone; large body size; large forehead or ears; prominent jaw; long face; soft skin
  40. Amniocentesis
    • - prenatal diagnostic method
    • - most widely used technique
    • - hollow needle is inserted through abdominal wall to obtain sample of fluid in uterus
    • - cells are examined for genetic defects
    • - performed at or after 14th week after conception
    • - 1 to 2 weeks required for results
    • - small risk of miscarriage
  41. Chorionic villi biopsy 
    • - prenatal diagnostic method used ot get results early in pregnancy
    • - thin tube inserted in uterus through vagina or hallow needle inserted through abdomin wall
    • - small plug of tissue is removed from chorionic villi (hairlike projections on membrane surrounding baby
    • - cells are examined
    • - performed at 9 weeks after conception
    • - results available 24 hours
    • - slightly greater risk of miscarriage than amniocentesis
    • - small risk of limb deformities (higher risk the earlier procedure is performed)
  42. Ultrasound
    • - prenatal diagnostic method
    • - high-frequency sound waves are beamed at uterus
    • - reflection is translated into a picture on a video screen that reveals size, shape and placement of fetus
    • - permits assessment of fetal age, detection of multiple pregnancies, identification of gross physical defects
    • - used to guide amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling, and fetoscopy
    • - when used five or more times, may increase chance of low birth weight
  43. Fetoscopy
    • - prenatal diagnostic method
    • - small tube with light source at one end is inserted into uterus
    • - used to inspect fetus for defects of limbs and face 
    • - allows a sample of fetal blood to be obtained, permitting
  44. How long do the sperm and egg live before they
    become nonviable?
    • - sperm live up to six days and can wait for the ovum
    • - ovum survives for one day after being released into fallopian tube
  45. Period of the Zygote
    • - two weeks long
    • - from fertilization to a tiny mass of cells that flows out of the fallopian tube and attaches to wall of uterus
    • - first cell duplication is complete 30 hours after conception
    • - fourth day - 60 to 70 cells exist that form a hollow, fluid filled ball (blastocyst)
    • - cells inside, become organism
    • - cells outside, become protective covering
    • - delicate and uncertain events
    • - 30% of zygotes do not survive this period
  46. Period of the Fetus
    • - the prenatal organism from the ninth week to the end of pregnancy
    • - the period when body structures are completed and dramatic growth in size occurs
  47. thalidomide (as a teratogen)
    • - 4 to 6 weeks
    • - gross deformities of arms and legs; damage to ears, heart, kidneys and genitals; decreased intelligence
  48. diethylstilbestrol (as a teratogen)
    • - causes daughters to have cancer of vagina; malformation of uterus; infertility - causes sons to have genital abnormalities
    • and cancer of testes
  49. accutane (as a teratogen)
    • - first trimester
    • - abnormalities of eye, ear, skull, brain, heart, cns, immune system
  50. aspirin (as a teratogen)
    - low birth weight, infant death around time of birth, poor motor development, low intelligence test scores
  51. caffeine (as a teratogen)
    - low birth weight, miscarriage, newborn withdrawal symptoms
  52. Cocaine and Heroin (as teratogen)
    • - prematurity, low birth weight, physical defects, breathing difficulties, death at or around time of birth
    • - born drug addicted
    • - feverish and irritable
    • - cries are abnormally shrill and piercing
    • - trouble sleeping
    • - less attentive, slow motor development, jittery and inattentive
  53. Tobacco
    • - low birth weight, misscarriage, prematurity, impaired heart rate and breathing during sleep, infant death, asthma, cancer in later childhood
    • - constricted blood vessels, lessens blood flow to uterus, causes placenta to grow abnormally
  54. Alcohol (as a teratogen)
    • FASD
    • - physical, mental and behavioral outcomes
    • FAS
    • p-FAS
    • ARND
  55. FAS
    • -
    • slow physical growth
    • - pattern of three facial abnormalities (short
    • eyelid openings, thin upper lip, smooth or flatened philtrum, indentation
    • running from bottom of nose to center of upper lip)
    • - brain injury
    • - memory, language, and communication impaired
    • - attention span and activity level impaired
    • - planning and reasoning impaired
    • - motor coordination impaired
    • - social skills impaired
  56. p-FAS
    • - two of the three facial abnormalities
    • - brain injury
  57. ARND
    • - at least three areas of mental functioning are impaired
    • - typical physical growth
    • - absence of facial abnormalities
  58. Radiation (as teratogen)
    • - mutation, damaging DNA in ova and sperm
    • - underdeveloped brains, physical deformities, slow physical growth
    • - problems may appear later
    • - childhood cancer
    • - abnormal EEG brain-wave activity
    • - lower inteligence test score
    • - language and emotional disorders
  59. environmental pollution (as teratogen)
    • - many babies are "born polluted"
    • - mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, lead
    • - physical deformities, mental retardation, low birth rate, delayed cognitive development, intense physiological reactions to stress, prematurity, brain damage
  60. maternal disease (as teratogen)
    • - viruses, bacterial, parasitic diseases
    • - low birth weight, hearing loss, bone defects, severe mental illness, visual and cognitive impairments
    • - learning or visual disabilities later in life
  61. Three stages of childbirth
    • Dilation and effacement of cervix
    • - longest stage
    • - 4 to 6 hours
    • - contractions
    • Delivery of the baby
    • - when cervix is fully open
    • - 50 minutes
    • - contractions
    • Birth of the placenta
    • - few final contractions
    • - 5 to 10 minutes
  62. Apgar Scale
    • Used by doctors and nurses to assess the baby's physical condition
    • - heart rate
    • - respiratory effort
    • - reflex irritability
    • - muscle tone
    • - color
  63. Breech position
    infant is turned in such a way that buttocks or feet would deliver first
  64. Rh factor incompatibility
    • - between mother and baby's blood types
    • - result in reduced blood supply
    • - mother creates anitbodies to infants foreign Rh factor
  65. Range of reaction
    • each person's unique, genetically determined
    • response to a range of environmental conditions
  66. Canalization
    • the tendency of heredity to restrict the
    • development of some characteristics to just one or a few outcomes

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