Chapter 4

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khonka
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16852
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Chapter 4
Updated:
2010-05-02 18:44:51
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Prokaryotic Cells
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Quiz 3 (for the final) I didn't make all the flash cards for prokaryotic cells, read the rest of this section.
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  1. Coccus
    sphere/round
  2. Bacillus
    staff/rod-shapde (palachkoobraznii)
  3. Spirilla
    rigid with a spiral/corkscrew shape (speralyavidniy)
  4. Vibrio
    curved rod
  5. spirochetes
    flexible with a piral shape
  6. Diplo
    two cells (pairs) of cocci or baccilli
  7. Tetra
    3 or 4 cocci cells
  8. Sarcinae
    cube of 8 cocci cells
  9. Staphylo
    clusters of cocci cells
  10. Strepto
    chains of cocci cells or bacillus cells
  11. Stella
    star shaped cells
  12. Haloarcula
    square/rectangular shaped cells
  13. Monomorphic bacteria
    bacteria that do not change shape withing the same species.
  14. Pleomorphic
    different shapes within one species
  15. coccobacillus
    between rod and circle
  16. Glyacocalyx
    • sugar coat
    • Composed of polysaccharide and or polypeptide
    • Can be used as energy source
    • protects against dehydration
    • Keeps nutrients inside the cell
  17. 3 types of Glycocalyx - the outer layer to the cell wall of bacteria
    • Capsule
    • Slime layer
    • Extracellular polysaccharide
  18. Capsule
    • glycocalyx neatly organized and is firmly attached to the cell wall
    • Prevent phagocytosis by the host's immune system
  19. A slime layer
    glycocallys that is unroganized and is loosely attached to the cell wall
  20. Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)
    is a glycocalyx made of sugars and allosw bacterial cells to attach to various sufraces.
  21. Flagella
    • tails for moving, made of flagellin.
    • Anchored withing the cell wall
    • tists on its axis-rotates - run and tumble
  22. Monotrichous - arrangment of flagella
    one flagella on one end
  23. Amphitrichous
    one flagella at each end of the cell
  24. Lophotrichous
    2 or more flagella at both ends of the cell
  25. Peritrichous
    many flegella over the entire cell
  26. Chemotaxis
    cell moving to or away from chemical (stimuli)
  27. Phototaxis
    moving to or away from light
  28. Endoflagella
    • partially inside the cell
    • in Spirochetes - move like corkscew
  29. Fimbriae
    • shorter, straighter, thinner than flagella and not used for movement.
    • Used for attaching to surfaces to form biofilm
  30. Pilli
    • only 1 or 2 per cell
    • Trasfer DNA from one bacterial cell to another
    • se pilli
  31. Prokaryotic Cell Wall
    • gives strucutre to and ptorects the cell - surrounds the underlyiing plasma membrane
    • Prevents somotic lysis
    • Cell wall is the site of action for some antibiotics
    • Made of Peptidoglycan
  32. Peptidoglycan of a cell wall
    • NAG & NAM -monosacharide linked together(disaccharide) and they repeat
    • These disaccharides linked togheter by polypeptides (chains of amino acids) to form lettice surrounding the cell.
    • Penicillin inhibits polypeptide formation.-leads to cellular lysis
  33. Cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria
    • Many layer of peptidoglycan
    • Teichoic acid - stick to wall of peptidoglycan layer
    • Lipoteichoic acid links to palsma membrane
  34. Cell wall of Gram-negative Bacteria
    • Thin peptidoglycan layer between the outer phospholipid bylayer and inter phospolipid bilayr in plasma membrane.
    • Outer layer
    • Periplasm
  35. Periplasm in Gram-
    • where peptidoglycan found
    • contains many digestive enzymes and trasport proteins
    • No teichoic acid - more susceptibale to rupture than Gram +
  36. Outer membrane of Gram - cell wall
    • lipopolysaccharides - phospholipid by-layr
    • Contains porins - trasport proteins - makes outer membrane permeable
    • Lipid A - endotoxin - can cause shock, fever.
  37. Lysozyme
    digests the disaccharides in peptidoglycan
  38. Penicillin
    inhibits the formation of peptide bridges in peptidoglycan
  39. Protoplast
    Gram positive cell whose cell wall has been destroyed, but that is still alive and functional(lost its peptidoglycan)
  40. Spheroplast
    wall-less Gram-negative cell(lost outer membrane and peptidoglycan)
  41. L forms
    wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes.They can live, divide, and may return to a walled state.
  42. Plasma membrane
    phospholipid bilayer - basic famework of the plasma membrane. All the metabolic machinary - photosynthesis, aerobic respiartion, anaerobic resperaiton reactions.
  43. 3 type of proteins whithin the phospholipid bilayer
    • Peripheral proteins
    • Integral
    • transmembrane protein
  44. Peripheral proteins
    • on top of membrane
    • enzymes
    • structural proteisn
    • some assist the cell in changing membrane shape
  45. Integral proteins transmembrane proteins
    throught the plasma membrane - channels for movement of material into and out of the cell
  46. Fluis Mosaic Model
    • Plasma membrane is as viscouse as olive oil
    • Phospholipids rotate and move alterally for proteins to work properly ex. changes shape.
  47. Plasma membrane and its selective permeability
    • allows the passage of some molecules but not others across the plasma membrane
    • Ions pass slowly
    • lipids easily
    • water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, some simle sugars pass easily
  48. Photosynthetic pigments
    chromotophores or thylakoids found of foldings of cells that rquired photosynthesis.

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