Card Set Information
Quiz 3 (for the final) I didn't make all the flash cards for prokaryotic cells, read the rest of this section.
rigid with a spiral/corkscrew shape (speralyavidniy)
flexible with a piral shape
two cells (pairs) of cocci or baccilli
3 or 4 cocci cells
cube of 8 cocci cells
clusters of cocci cells
chains of cocci cells or bacillus cells
star shaped cells
square/rectangular shaped cells
bacteria that do not change shape withing the same species.
different shapes within one species
between rod and circle
Composed of polysaccharide and or polypeptide
Can be used as energy source
protects against dehydration
Keeps nutrients inside the cell
3 types of Glycocalyx - the outer layer to the cell wall of bacteria
glycocalyx neatly organized and is firmly attached to the cell wall
Prevent phagocytosis by the host's immune system
A slime layer
glycocallys that is unroganized and is loosely attached to the cell wall
Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS)
is a glycocalyx made of sugars and allosw bacterial cells to attach to various sufraces.
tails for moving, made of flagellin.
Anchored withing the cell wall
tists on its axis-rotates - run and tumble
Monotrichous - arrangment of flagella
one flagella on one end
one flagella at each end of the cell
2 or more flagella at both ends of the cell
many flegella over the entire cell
cell moving to or away from chemical (stimuli)
moving to or away from light
partially inside the cell
in Spirochetes - move like corkscew
shorter, straighter, thinner than flagella and not used for movement.
Used for attaching to surfaces to form biofilm
only 1 or 2 per cell
Trasfer DNA from one bacterial cell to another
Prokaryotic Cell Wall
gives strucutre to and ptorects the cell - surrounds the underlyiing plasma membrane
Prevents somotic lysis
Cell wall is the site of action for some antibiotics
Peptidoglycan of a cell wall
NAG & NAM
-monosacharide linked together(disaccharide) and they repeat
These disaccharides linked togheter by
polypeptides (chains of amino acids)
to form lettice surrounding the cell.
Penicillin inhibits polypeptide formation
.-leads to cellular lysis
Cell wall of
Many layer of peptidoglycan
- stick to wall of peptidoglycan layer
links to palsma membrane
Cell wall of Gram-negative Bacteria
Thin peptidoglycan layer between the outer phospholipid bylayer and inter phospolipid bilayr in plasma membrane.
Periplasm in Gram-
where peptidoglycan found
contains many digestive enzymes and trasport proteins
No teichoic acid - more susceptibale to rupture than Gram +
Outer membrane of Gram - cell wall
lipopolysaccharides - phospholipid by-layr
Contains porins - trasport proteins - makes outer membrane permeable
Lipid A - endotoxin - can cause shock, fever.
digests the disaccharides in peptidoglycan
inhibits the formation of peptide bridges in peptidoglycan
cell whose cell wall has been destroyed, but that is still alive and functional(lost its peptidoglycan)
wall-less Gram-negative cell(lost outer membrane and peptidoglycan)
wall-less cells that swell into irregular shapes.They can live, divide, and may return to a walled state.
phospholipid bilayer - basic famework of the plasma membrane. All the metabolic machinary - photosynthesis, aerobic respiartion, anaerobic resperaiton reactions.
3 type of proteins whithin the phospholipid bilayer
on top of membrane
some assist the cell in changing membrane shape
Integral proteins transmembrane proteins
throught the plasma membrane - channels for movement of material into and out of the cell
Fluis Mosaic Model
Plasma membrane is as viscouse as olive oil
Phospholipids rotate and move alterally for proteins to work properly ex. changes shape.
Plasma membrane and its selective permeability
allows the passage of some molecules but not others across the plasma membrane
Ions pass slowly
water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, some simle sugars pass easily
chromotophores or thylakoids found of foldings of cells that rquired photosynthesis.