104 Basic Science. Test #1

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104 Basic Science. Test #1
2012-09-02 14:21:12
Dental Assisting

104 Basic Science. Ch. 18 (Microbiology)
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  1. Aerobes
    -Bacteria that requires oxygen to grow.
  2. Anaerobes
    -Bacteria that grows without oxygen and is destoyed by oxygen.
  3. Bacilli
    -Rod shaped bacteria that cause TB and other diseases.
  4. Candida
    -A yeast commonly found in the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and female denital tract, and sometimes in the skin.
  5. Chancre
    -Painless ulcerating sore.
  6. Cocci
    -Spherical bacterial cells that reproduce by dividing into two.
  7. Creutsdeldt-Jakob Disease
    -Jakob Disease
-Rare chronic brain disease with onset  in middle to late life (40-60).
  8. Endospores
    -A resistant, dormant structure formed inside of some bacteria that can withstand adverse conditions.
  9. Facultative Anaerobes
    -Organisms that can grow with or without oxygen.
  10. Fungi
    -Plants, such as mushrooms, yeast, and molds, that lack chlorophyll.
  11. Gram Negative
    -Classification of bacteria that do not hold a due stain under a microscope.
  12. Gram Positive
    -Classification of bacteria that does hold a dye stain and appear dark purple under a microscope.
  13. Gram's Stain
    -Four-step staining process developed by Hans Christian Gram and used to seperate bacteria into groups.
  14. H1N1 (Swine Flu)
    -A form of swine influenza virus.
  15. Herpesvirus
    -A virus that causes infections in humans, such as herpes, cytomegalovirus, chicken pox, shingles, mononucleosis, measles, and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  16. Latent
  17. Mircobiology
    -The study of microorganisms.
  18. Nonpathogenic
    -Pertaining to microorganisms that do NOT produce disease.
  19. Oral Candidiasis
    -Candida yeast infection of the oral mucosa.
  20. Pathogens
    -Disease-producing microorganisms.
  21. Petri Plate/Dish
    -A small, flat dish made of thin glass or plastic that contains sterile solid medium for the culture of microorganisms.
  22. Prions
    • -Infectious particles of proteins that lack nucleic acids.
    • -Mad cow, alzheimer disease, dementia.
  23. Protozoa
    -Single-celled microscopic animals without a rigid cell wall.
  24. Provirus
    -Virus that is hidden during the latency period.
  25. Spirochetes
    -Spiral-shaped bacteria.
  26. Staphylococci
    -Cocci that form irregular groups or clusters.
  27. Streptococci
    -Cocci that form chains as the divide.
  28. Virulent
    -Capable of causing serious disease.
  29. Viruses
    -Ultramicroscopic infectious agents that contain DNA or RNA.
  30. Aristotle
    • -(384-322 bc)
    • -His "spontaneously generated" theory was unchallenged for 2,000 years.
  31. Antony van Leeuwenhoek
    • -(1632-1723)
    • -Dutch merchant/amateur scientist.
    • -Primitive microscope to observe things from teeth.
  32. John Tyndall
    • -(1820-1893)
    • -English physicist that discovered bacteria existed in heat-stable and heat-sensitive forms.
  33. Joseph Lister
    • -(1827-1912)
    • -1st to recognize role of airborne microorganisms in post surgical infections.
  34. Robert Koch
    • -(1843-1910)
    • -Provided techniques and discipline necessary to guide future microbiologists.
    • -Developed two-part dish that was used for growing bacteria.
  35. Julius Petri
    • -(1852-1921)
    • -German bacteriologist that invented the Petri Dish/Plate.
  36. Louis Pasteur
    • -(1822-1895)
    • -Father of Microbiology.
    • -Pasteurization. Rabies vaccine in 1885. Pasteur Institute in France 1888.
    • -Disproved Aristotle's "spontaneously generated theory.
  37. Major Groups of Microorganisms (5)
    • 1.) Bacteria
    • 2.) Algae
    • 3.) Protozoa
    • 4.) Fungi
    • 5.) Viruses
  38. Major Groups of Microorganisms

    1.) Bacteria
    • -Largest group of microorganisms. Grow best in temp of 98.6 degrees F. Likes moist and dark environments. Bacteria occur naturally in one part of the body and invade another part. Can replicate DNA and grow outside living host.
    • -Oxygen: Aerobic (w/ oxygen), Anaerobic (w/out oxygen), Faculative anaerobes (w/ or w/out oxygen).
    • -Shape: Cocci (dividing into two & spherical shaped), Bacilli (rod shaped), and Shirochetes (spiral).
    • -Protection: Capsules (protective layers that covers cell wall) and Spores (highly resistant, remain alive in spore but inactive until broken).
  39. Major Groups of Microorganisms

    2.) Algae
    -Microscopic, ranges from single-celled organisms to larger multiple-cell organisms. Contains chlorophyll and pigments that cause them to turn yellow-green, brown, or red.
  40. Major Groups of Microorganisms

    3.) Protozoa
    • -Large group of single-celled organisms. Most done cause disease. Can remind visible as cysts. Small number
    • of protozoa are responsible for intestianl infection.
    • -Ameibic Dysentary: severe diarrhea.
    • -Periodontal Disease: inflammed tissue around tooth, found in plaque
    • -Malaria: mosquitoes. fever and soreness.
  41. Major Groups of Microorganisms
4.) Fungi
    • -Plants, mushrooms, yeast, and molds.
    • -Candida: common yeast, cross-contamination b/t mother and baby or infant siblings
    • -Oral Candidiasis: caused by yeast candida albicans (thrush). White membranes on surface of oral mucosa, tongue, and elsewhere in oral cavity.
    • -Athletes foot.
    • -Ringworm.
  42. Major Groups of Microorganisms
5.) Viruses
    • -Much smaller than bacteria and cannot reproduce outside living host cell. Lives and multiplies inside living host. Can cause fatal disease. Can be picky (picks specific parts of the body to attack). Can cross placenta and infect fetus/baby. Can cause disease in more than one organ. Comes and goes at they please, can easily be destroyed in external environment and don't have long shelf life.
    • -Latent: Dormant
    • -Provirus: hidden during latent period.
    • -Treatment: treat symptoms, antibiotics are infective in preventing and curing, difficult to develop vaccines bc viruses and mutate and change genetic code.
    • -Transmitted: blood transfusion, contaminated food/water, inhalation of droplets expelled by coughing and sneezing.
  43. Viral Diseases
    • -Measles: Rash, fever, spread by airborne droplets of nasal secretions (bumpy rash)
    • -Mumps: Swelling of parotid (salivary) glands on one or both sides, spread by airborne droplets.
    • -Rubella/German Measles: (Flat rash) on face may spread to trunk and limbs, can cause birth defects when
    • pregnant, serious when affects woman in early stages of pregnancy, vaccine at 15 months.
    • -Polio/Poliomyelitis: Attacks central nervous system, severe paralysis is possible, iron lung helps patient
    • to breathe, vaccine when baby and booster at 5.
    • -Chicken Pox: Very common and contagious in children, rash and fever, spread through airbone
    • droplets, usually only contract once, better if before age 10, can cause Shingles.
    • -Common Cold and Flu: treatments for fever, upset stomach, headache, and bodyache, spread through airborne droples, contact with contaminated objects, or hand to hand contact.
    • -West Nile: Mosquitoes, affects nervous system.
    • -H1N1: Swine Flu, swine influenza 
    • -Herpes zoster virus: shingles, chicken pox.
    • -Cytomegalovirus: normally latent but highly contagious.
    • -Epstein-Barr virus: infectious mononucleosis and barkitt's lymphoma.
    • -Hepatitis A-E
    • -Syphillis: STD, 1st stage-cancre core, 2nd stage- infectious and occure by result of open sore, 3rd stage- fatal, lies dormant for 20 years.
    • -HIV: STD, blood-borne, needle stick, killed by heat, can't survive outside living host cell, long incubation periods, can cause AIDS.
  44. Disease Concern for Dental Office
    • -Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). -HSV I:
    • associated with infections of the lips, mouth, and face. -HSV II: associated with genital area and can be found in oral cavity, sexually transmitted, transmitted w/ and w/out outbreak.
    • -Primary Herpes: 1-3 yrs old, high contagious, fever, pain in mouth, increased salivation, lasts about a week then goes.
    • -Recurrent Herpes Liabialis: HSV lies dormant and later in life recures as a fever blister/cold sore, lasts 7-10 days, sun can cause it to recure.
    • -Hepatitis B: Needles/syrnges, loss of appetite, fever, jaundice, may or may not have symptoms, blood-borne, vaccine, very serious and can cause death.
    • -Hepatitis C: Blood transfusion, needle stick, tattoo and piercings, no vaccine.
    • -HIV: blood-borne, sexually transmitted, needle stick, killed by heat, can't survive outside living host cell, long incubation periods, can cause AIDS.
  45. Hepatitis A-E
    • -Hep A: personal contact or ingestion of contaminated water or food, always wash hands, can affect anyone, vaccine for long-term prevention for older than 2 yrs of age, least serious.
    • -Hep B: blood-borne, contaminated by bodily fluids and saliva, very serious, vaccine, fever, loss of appetite, jaundice, can cause death.
    • -Hep C: blood transfusion, needle stickm tattoo or piercing, no vaccine.
    • -Hep D: smallest form of hep, has to have hep b in order for hep d to survive.
    • -Hep E: fecal-oral contamination, developing countries.
  46. Bacterial Diseases
    • -Tuberculosis: deteriorates lung tissue, fatigue, fever, weight loss, cough, airborne, detected by skin test/chest x-ray, antibiotics for treatment, must wear masks.
    • -Diphtheria: severe throat infection and fever
    • -Pertussis: whooping cough, repiratory disease, mainly affect infants and young children, carried by adults.
    • -Tetanus: stiffness of jaw "lockjaw".
    • -Strep Throat: common, sore throat, fever, general malaise, "streptococcus mutans", species of same bacteria implanted in dental implants
    • -Rickettsiae: intestinal track of insects, lice, ticks, fleas, mosquitoes. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever & Typhis.
    • -Chlamydia: smallest of al bacteria, STD, trachoma disease caused by this.
    • -Legionnaires' Disease: contaminated water at American Legon convention in Philadelphia. Pontiac Fever: acute flulike symptoms, headache, fever, diarrhea. Legionnaires Disease: very severe pneumonia and can be fatal.
    • -MRSA: bacterium resistant to some antibiotics, carried on the skin or in the nose of healthy people.