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How is a theory helpful?
- - it provides organizing frameworks for our observations of children
- - it serves as a sound basis for practical action
Define developmental psychology
a branch of psychology devoted to understanding all changes that human beings experience throughout the lifespan
Locke's ideas are most important to:
What is a key difference between Freud and Erikson?
- not only does the go mediate between the id and superego, but it also develops attitudes and skills that help a person become an active, contributing member of a society
- - because of this, normal development must be understood in relation to each culture's life situation
An element that distinguishes social learning theory from traditional learning theory is that social learning theory emphasizes the importance of:
modeling or observational learning
Which statement is not compatible with the theory of continuous development?
a child's perspective of what it means for a car to go "brmmm" and "crash" will be different from an adult's because the child is at a different stage developmentally
Bronfenbrenner is responsible for this approach:
ecological systems theory
The dynamic systems perspective...
views the child's mind, body and physical and social worlds as an integrated system
Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky believed:
when children learn new tasks, they depend on adults and more mature peers
In the story of the Ugly Duckling, a baby swan is hatched and raised with a family of ducks. The baby swan knows to stay close to the mother duck so that he will be fed and protected from danger. This is most likely due to the ethological process of:
A prediction about behavior that has its origins in a theory is usually called a:
What are commonly measured in psychophysiological methods?
- - heart rate
- - respiration
- - brain functioning
Jane took a test. Her teacher had written the test with the intent of measuring Jane's multiplication abilities. Most of the questions were actually testing Jane's reading comprehension skills. This test has a problem with:
Studies which show the relationships between two variables as they are compared in real life situations are called _____ designs.
What are procedures for collecting systematic observations?
- - specimen record
- - event sampling
- - time sampling
What experimental situation is most like a controlled laboratory study?
What considerations for protecting the rights of research subjects involves specific practices with the research subjects?
- - informed consent
- - debriefing
The genetic makeup of an individual best defines ______.
If the alleles from both parents are alike at the same place on a pair of chromosomes, the child is said to be:
What factor would be best controlled by a cross-sectional sample?
_____ blood is dominant to ______ blood.
- - type A to type O
- - type B to type O
- - Rh positive to Rh negative
Down's syndrome is sometimes called:
The blastocyst implants in the _____ lining.
What are some structures that begin to develop during the period of the embryo?
- - the brain
- - the heart
- - digestive tract
Defective ______ are more harmful than defective ______ because they involve far more DNA.
The period of the fetus is defined as:
the prenatal organism from the beginning of the third month to the end of pregnancy, during which time completion of body structures and dramatic growth in size take place
What are potential consequences of natural childbirth?
- - mothers feel more in control of their labor and delivery
- - reseach suggests that social support decreases complication during childbirth
- - natural childbirt may reduce stress during a first childbirth
Preterm infants are:
born several weeks or more before their due date, although their weight may be appropriate for the amount of time spent in the uterus
What are four factors upon which harm done by teratogens depends?
Heretability estimates are:
statistics that measure the extent to which individual differences in complex traits in a specific population are due to genetic factors