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What are the three types of gastric ulcers?
- 1. Erosion
- 2. Acute
- 3. Perforated
What does GERD stand for?
Gastricesophageal reflux disease
Which type of an ulcer is a medical emergency?
What types of gastric or gastrouodenal contents are regurgitated during GERD?
- Bile Acids
- Pancreatic enzymes
What types of people does GERD occur in?
- Pregnant Women
GERD causes injury to what?
Lumen of the esophagus
What drugs lower the esophageal sphincter tone?
- Ca+2 channel blockers
What drugs are direct irritants to the esophagus?
- K+ supplements
What are some common clinical presentations of GERD?
What are some atypical presentations of GERD?
- Chest pain
- Throat tightness
- Chronic Cough
- Recurrent otitis in children
- Lingual dental erosion
Whata re some severe presentations of GERD?
- Continual Pain
- Barrett's esophagus (adenocarcinoma risk greatly increased)
What are signs of pediatric GERD?
- Cough at night
- Complain of abdominal pain
- Refuse to eat
- Have bad taste in mouth
What are some treatment options for GERD?
- Lifestyple changes (no alcohol or tobacco)
- Avoiding certain foods
- Eat 4-6 hours before sleeping
- H2 blockers
What acts as a buffer in the stomach?
What are the three steps in healing ulcers?
People with GI bleeds caused by ulcers may have what two presentations?
- Iron-deficiency anemia
- Foul odored stool containing blood
What causes GERD?
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)
Who discovered that GERD is caused by bacteria not stress?
- Barry Marshall
- J. Robin Warren
What type of bacteria is H. pylori?
Gram negative rod
How many people have H. pylori infections?
About 50% worldwid, increasing with age
Why can H. pylori survive in the stomach?
- Adhere to GI cells by HpaA adhesion protein
- can utilize urea and convered it to carbon dioxide and ammonia, ammonia allows bacteria to penetrate the mucous layer
What is the cold standard