302 Blood Glucose Monitoring
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What does Blood Glucose Monitoring do??
Test results direct:
- **Measures blood glucose levels for monitoring control
- of diabetes mellitus.
- – Diet
- – Amount and type of medication
- – Exercise prescription
- **Helps prevent diabetic emergencies by prompt detection
- & treatment of hypo- & hyperglycemia
What is diabetes??
**Inability of the pancreas to either produce enough insulin or the body’s inability to utilize the insulin it has.
(Insulin is the substance that converts glucose to a form that is usable by the body....Thus, low insulin equal high glucose circulating in the blood but not utilized by the cells.)
Complications of Abnormal Blood Glucose:
- *Heart attack
- *Cerebrovascular accident
- *Kidney dysfunction
- *Nerve damage
What is the normal range for FASTING glucose control?
What is the goal range for FASTING glucose control?
At what range is intervention needed for FASTING glucose control?
<80 or >140
What is the normal range for POSTPARANDIAL glucose control??
What is the goal range for POSTPARANDIAL glucose control??
At what range is intervention needed for POSTPARANDIAL glucose control?
What is the normal range for BEDTIME glucose control?
What is the goal for BEDTIME glucose control?
When is intervention needed for BEDTIME glucose control?
<100 or >160
What is the normal range for glycosylated hemoglobin?
What is the goal range for glycosylated hemoglobin?
When is intervention needed for glycosylated hemoglobin?
When doing a blood glucose monitoring assessment...what do you look for?
- *Client’s understanding
- *Health history
- *Specific conditions of specimen collection
- *Site selection
- *Client’s ability to self-test
- *Presence of signs & symptoms glucose alteration
- *Calibration of equipment
At what point when checking blood glucose should you intervene immediately???
What is Hypoglycemia?
- –Low blood sugar
What is Hyperglycemia?
- -High blood sugar
- (inadequate insulin)
Complications/Manifestations of Hypoglycemia:
- Mental confusion
Manifestations of Hyperglycemia:
- Blurred vision
- Abdominal cramping
Causes of Hyperglycemia:
- Hypoglycemic/insulin dose
- Acute infection (i.e. upper respiratory infection such as the flu, bad cold; urinary tract infection; skin infection)
- Stress (school, social, environmental)
- Loss of insulin potency
- Not receiving insulin from pump
Equipment needed for Blood Glucose monitoring:
–Cotton ball or gauze
Position site lower than heart
Gather supplies and turn on meter
Select site and cleanse
Position lancet firmly against site and pierce skin
- Read results...
- Once results are available,
- –Appropriate intervention for the value obtained, then:
dispose of used supplies
turn meter off (enter comments as indicated)
Once you have performed the Blood Glucose testing...
Observe site for bleeding or bruising
Compare client readings with normal values
Ask client to discuss procedures & test results
Observe client performing self-testing
Example of how to document a blood glucose level:
- –0730 Blood glucose 110. No insulin required.
- –1200 Blood glucose 240. Regular insulin (4 units) given subcutaneously per sliding scale order.
**Some facilities have a flowsheet and others note results on MAR.
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