Diseases of Respiratory System an Treatments part 1

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Diseases of Respiratory System an Treatments part 1
2012-09-02 20:08:43
Diseases Respiratory System an TreatmentsTr

Diseases of Respiratory System an Treatments
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  1.  Lungs
    A pair of spongy, air-filled organs located on either side of the chest (thorax)
  2. Trachea
    Conducts inhaled air into and out of the lungs through tubular branches called Bronchi
  3. Bronchi
    Divides into smaller branches called bronchioles
  4. Bronchioles
    End in clusters of microscopic air sacs called alveoli
  5. Two types of bronchioles
    • (a)Terminal bronchioles
    • [1] Airflow conduction occurs at this level

    • (b) Respiratory bronchioles
    • [1]Contains some alveoli
    • [2] Both airflow conduction and gas exchange occur
  6. Alveolar ducts
    The passage beyond the respiratory bronchioles from which alveolar sacs and alveoli arise
  7.  Alveoli
    • (1) Microscopic air sacs
    • (2) Where O2 and CO2 exchange occurs
    • (3) Lined with a phospholipid substance called surfactant
  8. Surfactant decreases surface tension by
    • [1] Reduces work associated with breathing or expanding the lungs
    • [2] Reduces work needed to open nearly collapsed alveoli and avoid their collapse
    • [3] Stabilizes alveolar size
  9. Conduction zone or where airflow occurs is comprised of the
    • (1) Trachea
    • (2) Bronchi
    •  (3) Terminal bronchioles
  10. Respiratory zone or where gas diffusion and exchange occurs is comprised of the 
    • (1) Respiratory bronchioles
    • (2) Alveolar ducts
    • (3) Alveoli
  11. Respiration occurs in two phases
    (1) Inspiration involving contraction of two muscle groups causing lung pressure to decrease allowing air to enter the lungs

    (2) Expiration involving relaxation of two muscle groups causing lung pressure to increase forcing air from the lungs
  12. Muscle groups involved
    • (a) Diaphragm
    • (b) Intercostal muscles
  13. Pleura
    • (1) It is double-layered membrane encasing lungs and chest wall
    • (2) Has a smooth shiny moist surface due to the secretion of small amounts of fluid
    • (3) Fluid within the pleura lubricates its visceral and parietal surfaces reducing friction during inspiration and expiration
  14. Pleura Cavity
    [1] Space between the pleura
  15. Visceral pleura
    A membrane that covers the lungs
  16. Parietal pleura
    A membrane that covers the chest wall
  17. Pulmonary pressures
    • (a) Intrapleural pressure
    • (b) Intrapulmonary pressure 
    • (c) Transpulmonary pressure
  18. Intrapleural pressure
    • [1] The pressure within the pleural cavity
    • [2] Slightly less than intrapulmonary pressure
    • [3] Not a negative pressure, but is lower than atmospheric pressure
  19. Intrapulmonary pressure 
    The pressure within the lungs
  20. Transpulmonary pressure
    • 1] The pressure across the lungs
    • [2] The difference between intrapulmonary and
    • intrapleural pressures
    • {1} This pressure prevents the lungs from collapsing
  21. Tachypnea
    Rapid Breathing Rate
  22. Dyspnea
    Labored Breathing
  23. Bradynea
    Slow Breathing rate
  24. Hypernea
    Abnormal increase in depth and rate of repiration
  25. Hypopnea
    Abnormal decrease in depth and rate of respiration
  26. Apnea
    Temporary absence or cessation of breathing
  27. Wheezing
    • (a) A sign a person may be having breathing problems
    • (b) Usually heard when exhaling, but may be heard when inhaling (a whistling sound)
    • (c) Usually comes from the small bronchi deep in the chest
    • (d) Also may be due to a blockage in larger airways or in persons with certain vocal cord problems
  28. Coughs
    (a) A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs typically in order to clear the airways of fluids, mucus, or other foreign material

    (b) Also known as tussis
  29. Types of cough
    • [1] Dry, productive (produces mucus)
    • [2] Hemoptysis (coughing blood)
  30. Cyanosis
    Blue color in skin and nails
  31. Fever 
    infection -> bronchitis
  32. Pain 
    (a) Sinuses

    (b) Throat

    (c) Chest
  33. Common symptoms of respiratory disease
    • Dyspnea
    • Tachypnea
    • Bradynea
    • Hyperpnea
    • Apnea
    • Wheezing
    • Coughs
    • Cyanosis
    • Fever
    • Fatigue
    • Pain
    • Sinus and nasal drainage
    • Weakness of respiratory muscle and voice
  34. Spirometry - Used to diagnose conditions that affect breathing such as
  35. (a) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
    (b) Restrictive lung disease (RLD)
  36. Spirometry -Used to check how well treatment for a chronic
    lung condition is working
    • Measures
    •     [1] Lung volume (or capacity) of air inhaled and/or exhaled
    •    [2] Speed air is inhaled and/or exhaled
  37. Lung volumes (a single volume measurement)
    • Tidal volume (VT)
    • Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
    • Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
    • Residual volume (RV)
  38. Tidal volume (VT)
    The volume of air moving into and out of the lungs during quiet breathing
  39. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
    The maximal volume of air inhaled from the lungs from the end-inspiratory level
  40. Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
    The maximal volume of air exhaled from the lungs from the end-expiratory level
  41. Residual volume (RV)
    The volume of air remaining in the lungs after a maximal exhalatio
  42. Lung capacities (two or more lung volumes comprise a lung capacity)
    • Total lung capacity (TLC)
    • Vital capacity (VC)
    • Inspiratory capacity (IC)
    • Functional residual capacity (FRC)
  43. Total lung capacity (TLC)
    • The volume of air in the lungs at maximal
    • inflation
  44. Vital capacity (VC)
    The volume equal to TLC-RV
  45. Inspiratory capacity (IC)
    The sum of IRV and VT
  46. Functional residual capacity (FRC)
    The volume of air in the lungs at end-expiration
  47. Spirometry are used for:
    • (1) Used to diagnose conditions that affect breathing
    • (2) Used to check how well treatment for a chronic lung condition is working
    • (3) Spirometry values different from predictive values (nomogram) may be indicative of a lung abnormality
    • (4) Comparison of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and restrictive lung disease (RLD
    • (5) Upper respiratory diseases
  48. Nomogram (spirometry nomogram)
    • [1] A graph consisting of three coplanar curves, each scaled for a different variable so a straight line cutting all three curves intersects the related values of each variable
    •      [a] Predictive values for (See Slides 19 and 25)
    •         {1}Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)
    •         {2} Forced vital capacity (FVC)
    •              {a} FEV1/FVC ratio predictive of lung diseases
  49. COPD
    • [1] Asthma
    • [2] Emphysema
    • [3] Chronic bronchitis
  50. Inspiratory RLD
    • [1] Pulmonary fibrosis
    • [2] Pleural fibrosis or effusion
    • [3] Diaphragmatic weakness
  51. Expiratory RLD
    • [1] Ascites
    • [2] Obesity
    • [3]Pregnancy
    • [4] Weakness of abdominal musculature