Bones of the Cranium

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studytaz
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168601
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Bones of the Cranium
Updated:
2012-09-02 23:58:43
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Restorative Art week
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Surface Bones of the Cranium
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  1. OCCIPITAL BONE (1)
    The Occipital Bone is the lowest part of the back and base of the skull.

    It curves under the skull and becomes a cradle for the brain.
  2. FORAMEN MAGNUM
    The Occipital Bone has a large opening called the Foramen Magnum, which permits entry of the spinal cord.

    In osteology, the word foramen refers to an opening (or hole) in a bone.
  3. OCCIPITAL PROTUBERANCE
    • The Occipital Protuberance is a small jutting eminence, which may be felt through scalp.
    •  
    • It may serve as a landmark for finding the Foramen Magnum.

    Occipital comes from the word Occiput which means

    The back or posterior part of the head or skull
  4. PARIETAL BONES (2)
    The two Parietal Bones create the greater part of the cranium.

    They form the superior portion of the sides and back of the cranium.

    • The two Parietal Bones articulate with the...
    • Temporal Bones, the Occipital Bone, and the Frontal
    • Bones 
  5. PARIETAL BOUNDARIES
    • The outer boundaries of parietal articulation are the...
    • Coronal Suture, Squamosal Suture, and Lambdoidal Suture

    Sutures are where the bones "knit" together.
  6. SAGITTAL SUTURE
    The two Parietal Bones articulate with each other at the Sagittal Suture.

    The Sagittal Suture marks the highest or most superior part of the cranial dome.
  7. CORONAL SUTURE
    The two Parietal bones articulate with the frontal bones at the coronal suture.
  8. LAMBDOIDAL SUTURE
    The two parietal bones articulate with the occipital bone at the lambdoidal suture.
  9. PARIETAL EMINENCE
    The two Parietal Bones are smooth and convex in curvature.

    Each is "marked" near its center by a Parietal Eminence.

    The widest part of the cranium is measured the between the Parietal Eminences.

    The Parietal Eminences are located a short distance above the posterior border of the ear. Though they are rather indistinct, they are never the less an important landmark.
  10. TEMPORAL BONES (2)
    The two Temporal Bones create the lower portion of the sides and base of the cranium.

    They are located inferior to the Parietal Bones and anterior to the Occipital Bone.
  11. SQUAMA
    The Squama is the vertical portion of the Temporal Bone.

    • The Squama is scale-like, thin, and translucent.
    • (fig.4-A, page 38, RA)
  12. ZYGOMATIC ARCH
    The Zygomatic Arch projects from the lower part of the Squama.

     It is long, thing, and arched.

    The Zygomatic Arch is used to establish the widest part of the face and to locate the correct position of the reconstructed ear. It divides the ear into equal halves.

    Part of the Temporal Bone
  13. MANDIBULAR FOSSA
    The Mandibular Fossa is a small oval depression on the under-surface of the Temporal bone.  It is located posterior to the Zygomatic Arch

    The Condyle of the lower jaw fits into the socket of the Mandibular Fossa.

    The Mandibular Fossa is the hinge for the lower jaw.

    Dislocation of this articulation may be a corrective treatment for “buck teeth”.(fig.4-C, page 38, RA)

    Part of the Temporal Bone
  14. MASTOID PROCESS
    The Mastoid Process of the Temporal Bone creates the posterior part of the bone.

    Physiognomically, it is situated under the ear lobe.

    Part of the Temporal Bone
  15. EXTERNAL AUDITORY MEATUS
    The External Auditory Meatus is the opening of the ear passage.

    The front border of the ear is in alignment with this opening.

    The External Auditory Meatus is the primary structure for the accurate location and position of a reconstructed ear.

    Part of the Temporal Bone
  16. FRONTAL BONE (1)
    The Frontal Bone forms both the forehead and the anterior portion of the roof of the skull.

    The surface of the Frontal Bone abruptly changes direction at the Frontal Eminencies.

    The vertical portion or forehead extends from the eye sockets to the Frontal Eminences.

    The horizontal portion or crown, which is located above the Frontal Eminences ascends superiorly until it reaches the Parietal Bones.
  17. EMINENCES OF THE FRONTAL BONE
    • Frontal Eminences (2)
    • Superciliary Arches (2)
    • Glabella (1)
    • Supraorbital Margin (2)
    • (Figure 5, page 41, Restorative Art)
  18. FRONTAL EMINENCES (2)
    The Frontal Eminences are rounded un-margined prominences, at the upper part of the forehead. They are found on each side of the forehead.  

    They vary in size and prominence. They may be indistinct and asymmetrical
  19. SUPERCILIARY ARCHES (2)
    Physiognomically, the Superciliary Arches lie above the medial ends of the eyebrows.

    They are on the lower part of the forehead.
  20. GLABELLA (1)
    The Glabella is the small smooth elevation which lies between the Superciliary Arches.

    It is often described as the eminence just above the root of the nose.
  21. SUPRAORBITAL MARGINS (2)
    The Supraorbital Margin forms the upper rim of the eye-socket.  It lies inferior to the level of the Superciliary Arches.

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