Vitamins

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Author:
lazzsant
ID:
168607
Filename:
Vitamins
Updated:
2012-09-02 22:00:46
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Vitamins
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  1. What is the function of vitamin A?
    • Antioxidant
    • Constituent of visual pigments
    • essential for normal differentiation of epithelial cells into specialized tissue (pancreatic cells, mucus-secreting cells)
    • Treat measles
  2. What is seen with vitamin A deficiency?
    • Night blindness
    • dry skin
    • bitot skin
    • lung -> squamos epithelium
    • xerophthalmia
    • keratomalacia
    • blindness
  3. What is seen with vitamin A excess?
    Arthragias, fatigue, headaches, skin changes, sore throat, alopecia. Teratogenic
  4. What is the function of Vitamin B1
    Thiamine

    • cofactor for:
    • Pyruvate dehydrogenase (glycolysis)
    • a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (TCA cycle)
    • Transketolase (HMP shunt)
    • Branched-chain AA dehydrogenase
  5. What is seen with a vitamin B1 deficiency?
    • THIAMINE
    • Impaired glucose breakdown -> ATP depletion
    • Wernicke-Korsakoff (confusion, opthalmplegia, ataxia, confabulation)

    Dry beriberi = polyneuritis, symmetrical muscle wasting

    Wet beriberi = high output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy), edema
  6. What is the function of vitamin B2?
    RIBOFLAVIN

    • Cofactor in oxidation and reduction (FADH2 and FMN) :
    • Succinate dH (TCA)
    • fatty acyl dH (B-oxidation)
    • Glycerol dH (electron from cytoplasm to mitochondria)
  7. What is seen with a vitamin B2 deficiency?
    RIBOFLAVIN

    • Cheilosis, corneal vascularization
    • Magenta-colored tongue
  8. What is the function of vitamin B3?
    NIACIN

    • Derived from tryptophan with vitamin B6
    • Constituent of NAD+ & NADP+
  9. What is seen with a vitamin B3 deficiency?
    NIACIN

    Glossitis

    • Pellagra (Diarrhea, Dermatitis, Dementia) ¬†from:
    • Hartnup disease (decrease tryptophan absorption)
    • malignant carcinoid syndrome (increased tryptophan metabolism)
    • INH (decrease vitamin B6)
  10. What is seen with a vitamin B3 excess?
    Facial flushing (when given for hyperlipidemia treatment)
  11. What is the function of vitamin B5?
    PANTOTHENATE

    • Essential component of CoA and fatty acid synthase:
    • Fatty acyl CoA synthase
    • Pyruvate dehydrogenase
    • a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
  12. What is seen with a vitamin B5 deficiency?
    PANTHOTHENATE

    • Dermatitis
    • enteritis
    • alopecia
    • adrenal insufficiency
  13. What is the function of Vitamin B6?
    PYRIOXINE (converted to pyridoxal phosphate)

    • Cofactor in:
    • transamination
    • decarboxylation reaction
    • glycogen phosphorylase
    • cystathionine synthesis
    • heme synthesis
    • synthesis of niacin from tryptophan
  14. What is seen with a deficiency in Vitamin B6?
    PYRIDOXINE

    • Convulsions
    • hyperirritability
    • peripheral neuropathy(INH & oral contraceptives)
    • sideroblastic anemias, cheilosis
  15. What is the function of vitamin B 12?
    COBALAMIN

    cofactor for homocysteine methyltransferase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase
  16. What is seen with a vitamin B12 deficiency?
    COBALAMIN

    • Macrocytic, megaloblastic anemia
    • hypersegmented PMN's
    • neurologic (paresthesias, subacute combined degeneration) due to abnormal myelin

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