PSYC 320 Lesson 5

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  1. Neonatal reflexes are an indication of:
    the status of an infant's nervous system
  2. When an infant's head is turned to one side while lying awake on its back, the infant will show the _____ reflex.
    tonic neck
  3. REM stands for:
    rapid eye movement
  4. Which state of arousal is often accompanied by diffuse, vigorous motor activity?
  5. What are ways to soothe a crying newborn?
    • - swaddle the baby
    • - talk softly
    • - lift the baby to the shoulder and rock or walk
  6. What does the ehtological theory state?
    • - responding to the baby's cries is adaptive
    • - responsiveness allows parents to respond to a variety of infant behaviors
    • - mothers who delayed or failed to respond to their young baby's cries had infants who cried more at the end of the first year
  7. A helpful outcome of the use of the NBAS is:
    researchers have learned a great deal about individual and cultural differences in newborn behavior
  8. Classical conditioning in infants is most effective when:
    it has survival value
  9. Classical conditioning is usually used to explain _____ responses.
  10. A reinforcer is best defined as:
    a stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response
  11. Every time Johnny gets spanked he appears to become more unwilling to give up the behavior that has elicited the spanking. In fact, the undesired behavior becomes more frequent. In the case of Johnny, spanking is:
    a reinforcer
  12. A growing number of studies are reporting that imitation is first demonstrated in:
  13. The cephalocaudal trend would predict that infants can control their _____ before their _____.
    head; back
  14. What has the earliest impact on the emotions of infants?
    being held and touched
  15. Research on taste in the neonate indicates that:
    they have a distinct preference for sweetness
  16. What does the IQ research say about infancy being a sensitive period?
    the earlier infants are removed from their deprived conditions, the greater their catch-up in development
  17. Palmar grasp reflex
    • ·        
    • stimulated when an object is placed in baby's
    • palm

    • ·        
    • responds by grasping object

    • ·        
    • emerges 11 weeks in utero, inhibited 2-3 months

    • persistent palmar
    • grasp reflex may cause issues such as swallowing problems and delayed speech
  18. Babinski reflex
    • ·        
    • stimulated by stroking the sole of the foot

    • ·        
    • toes of the foot should fan out

    • ·        
    • the foot itself should curl in

    • emerges at 18 weeks
    • in utero, disappears by 6 months
  19. Tonic neck reflex
    • ·        
    • child is placed on their back

    • ·        
    • make fists, turn head to the right

    • ·        
    • present at 18 weeks in utero

    • disappears by 6
    • months
  20. Rooting reflex
    • ·        
    • baby's cheek is stroked

    • ·        
    • turn head towards stimulus

    • ·        
    • start sucking, allowing for breastfeeding

    • inhibited 6-12 months
    • of age
  21. Moro reflex
    • ·        
    • stimulated by a sudden movement or loud noise

    • ·        
    • respond by throwing out the arms and legs and
    • then pulling them toward body

    • emerges 8-9 weeks in
    • utero, inhibited by 16 weeks
  22. Stepping reflex
    • ·        
    • will make walking motions with legs and feet
    • when help in an upright position with feet touching ground

    • appears at birth,
    • lasts 3-4 months, reappears at 12-24 months
  23. Five stage of arousal for infant
    • ·        
    • regular sleep (NREM)

    • ·        
    • irregular sleep (REM)

    • ·        
    • drowsiness

    • ·        
    • quiet alertness

    • waking activity and
    • crying
  24. REM sleep
    • ·        
    • rapid-eye-movement sleep

    • ·        
    • electrical brain-wave activity, measured with
    • EEG, is remarkably similar to that of the waking state

    • ·        
    • eyes dart beneath lids

    • ·        
    • heart rate, blood pressure and breathing are
    • uneven

    • slight body movements
    • occur
  25. The first way that babies communicate
  26. NBAS
    • Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
    • - evaluates the baby's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, responsiveness to physical and social stimuli, and other reactions
  27. classical conditioning
    • a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
    • - new stimulus will eventually produce the behavior by itself
  28. unconditioned stimulus
    must consistently produce a reflexive/unconditioned response
  29. conditioned stimulus
    • the neutral stimulus
    • - elicits a conditioned response
  30. operant conditioning
    infants act, or operate, on the environment, and stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again
  31. habituation
    a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation
  32. recovery
    a new stimulus - a change in the environment - causes the habituated response to return to a high level
  33. proximodistal trend
    the pattern of motor control from the center of the body outward
  34. dynamic systems theory of motor development
    • mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action
    • - when motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment
  35. prereaching
    • poorly coordinated swipes, made by infants, toward toward an object in front of them
    • - newborns
  36. ulnar grasp
    • a clumsy motion in which the baby's fingers close against the palm
    • - reaching for an object
    • - 3 to 4 months
  37. pincer grasp
    • infants use the thumb and index finger opposably in a well coordinated way
    • - by end of 1 yr old
  38. statistical learning capacity
    • - allows infants to make such rapid progress in perceiving the structure of language
    • - they analyze the speech stream for patterns and acquire a stock of speech structures for which they will later learn meanings
  39. visual acuity
    • fineness of discrimination
    • - limited at birth
    • - about as good as adults at 2 months
  40. visual cliff
    • - used in the earliest tests of depth perception
    • - designed by Gibson and Walk in 1960
    • - consists of a plexiglas-covered table with a platform at the center
    • - shallow side with a checkerboard pattern just below glass
    • - deep side with checkerboard pattern few feet below glass
  41. size constancy
    perception of an object's size as stable, despite changes in teh size of its retinal image
  42. shape consistency
    perception of an object's shape as stable, despite changes in the shape projected on the retina
  43. intermodal perception
    • making sense of running streams of light, sound, tactile, odor and taste information
    • - mostly mastered by 6 months
  44. amodal sensory properties
    information that is not specific to a single modality but that overlaps two or more sensory systems, such as rate, rhyth, duration, intensity, temporal synchrony, and texture and shape
  45. differentiation theory
    • - Gibson
    • - infants actively search for invariant features in the environment
  46. invarient features
    those that remain stable, in a constantly changing perceptual world
  47. affordances
    • - guides perception
    • - the action possibilities that a situation offers an organism with certain motor capatabilities
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PSYC 320 Lesson 5
2012-09-03 02:54:51
PSYC 320 Lesson

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