Bones of the Face

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studytaz
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168630
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Bones of the Face
Updated:
2012-09-02 23:50:12
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Restorative Art Week
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Surface Bones of the Face
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  1. ZYGOMATIC BONE (2)
    The Zygomatic Bone is the cheekbone. Its curvature is convex. It exists in both the frontal and lateral planes of the face.

    The Zygomatic Bone creates the prominence of the cheek and forms major portions of the inferior and lateral margins of the eye-socket.

    Physiognomically, the greatest width of the anterior plane of the face is measured between the centers of the two Zygomatic Bones.

    (The center is located slightly inferior and lateral to the outer corner of the eye.)
  2. ZYGOMATICOFRONTAL PROCESS
    Forms the lateral and lower rim of the eye-socket.
  3. NASAL BONE (2)
    The two Nasal Bones articulate directly inferior to the Glabella.

    Viewed in profile, they "dip" posteriorly below the Glabella.

    Together they create a dome over the superior part of the nasal cavity.
  4. MAXILLA (2)
    The Maxilla is formed by two large bones of the upper jaw which articulate at the medial line below the nasal cavity.
  5. NASAL SPINE
    Where the two bones join at the inferior margin of the nasal cavity

    They send out small sharp spur, called the Nasal Spine.
  6. ALVEOLAR PROCESS OF THE MAXILLA
    The Alveolar Processes are the thickest and most spongy part of the Maxillae.

    They are the sockets for the teeth. They are sixteen in number.
  7. FRONTAL PROCESS OF THE MAXILLA
    Physiognomically, the Frontal Process of the Maxilla influences the lateral wall of the nose. 

    Each Frontal Process of the Maxilla extends superiorly and laterally beside the Nasal Bone to articulate with the Frontal Bone.
  8. MANDIBLE
    The lower jaw is called the Mandible, it is composed of a curved horizontal structure called the Body of the Mandible...and two perpendicular structures, on either side, which are quadrilateral in shape, Each one called the Ramus of the Mandible.
  9. RAMUS OF THE MANDIBLE
    • The two perpendicular structures on each side of the Mandible
    • (figure 12, page 53, Restorative Art)
  10. CONDYLE OF THE RAMUS
    CORONOID PROCESS OF THE RAMUS
    • Each Ramus terminates in two processes. The Coronoid Process and the Condyle of the Ramus
    • (figure 12, page 53, letter G & H)

    • The Condyle of the Ramus is the posterior process which rests in the socket of the Temporal Bone. The socket is called the Mandibular Fossa.
    • (figure 12, page 53, Restorative Art)
  11. BODY OF THE MANDIBLE
    • The Body of the Mandible is curved in the form of a horseshoe and has three important structures.
    • (figure 12, page 53, Restorative Art)

    The Alveolar Process (D),

    The Mental Eminence (C), 

    The Incisive Fossa (B)
  12. BODY OF THE MANDIBLE
    THE ALVEOLAR PROCESS
    • The Alveolar Process of the Mandible has sixteen sockets for the teeth.  Normally the inferior teeth are set slightly "within" those of the upper jaw to afford a satisfactory
    • "bite". 

    Physiognomically, the position of the lower jaw affects the surface contour of the mouth.

    The lower lip should be slightly posterior to the upper lip.

    In normal repose, the upper and lower teeth are not tightly contacted.  There is a slight interval between them.

    Tight contact in posing the teeth destroys the appearance of relaxation.

    Tight facial muscles will change the form of the cheeks.
  13. BODY OF THE MANDIBLE
    THE MENTAL EMINENCE
    The Mental Eminence is a "marked'' by a faint vertical ridge on the midline of the Body of the Mandible. 

    This divides and encloses the triangular landmark called the Mental Eminence. (figure 12, page 53)
  14. BODY OF THE MANDIBLE
    THE INCISIVE FOSSA
    Between the Mental Eminence and the incisor teeth, the surface recedes.

    • This is the Incisive Fossa. The word fossa always indicates a depression or concave recession. 
    • (figure 12, page 53, Restorative Art)

    The Incisive Fossa is a recession that is most readily seen from the profile view. Physiognomically, the Incisive Fossa is responsible for the recession of the central plane of the lower lip.
  15. ANGLE OF THE MANDIBLE
    The Body of the Mandible and each Ramus unite at nearly right angles. At this juncture we can locate the Angle of the Mandible. (Angle of the Jaw)

    The Angle of the Mandible is chiefly responsible for the geometric form of the head when viewed from the front. (page 53, E)
  16. SPHENOID BONE (1)
    pg 16 anatomy for funeral service
    Greater Wing

    Lesser Wing

    Sella Turcica
  17. THE SPHENOID BONE
    Depending upon the point of view the sphenoid bone

    Is described as the "bat shaped bone" some say a butterfly.

    The greater wing indeed looks like a wing (or wings), But the lesser wing is described by some anatomists as resembling a pair of horns.

    It helps make up the floor of the cranial cavity, the back of the eye-sockets, and part of the temple area.

    The sella turcica is a landmark of the sphenoid bone.  It holds or cradles the pituitary gland
  18. ETHMOID BONE (1) 
    pg 16 anatomy for funeral service
    Crista Galli

    Cribriform Plate

    Perpendicular plate
  19. THE ETHMOID BONE
    The ethmoid bone (from Greek ethmos, "sieve") is a bone in the skull that separates the nasal cavity from the brain.  As such, it is located at the roof of the nose, between the two orbits.

    The bone is lightweight due to a spongy construction.  The ethmoid bone is one of the bones that makes up the orbit of the eye.  The ethmoid bone is very irregular in shape.

    Crista galli means—crest of the cock, or roosters comb.

    The cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone is the flat superior surface of the ethmoid bone and is part of the floor of the cranial cavity.  The cribriform plate has many small holes.

    The perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone is a thin flat plate of bone that extends down in to the nasal cavity on the midline. The perpendicular plate makes up part of the nasal septum.  (RA, fig 9, page 47)
  20. LACRIMAL BONES (2)
    pg 17 anatomy for funeral service
    Lacrimal comes from the Latin word for tears.  The Lacrimal bone, the smallest and most fragile bone of the face, It is situated at the front part of the medial wall of the orbit (eye-socket).
  21. Two orbits sell for less
    • Sphenoid, Ethmoid, Lacrimal.....Lacrimal,Ethmoid, Sphenoid
    • SEL………LES

     
  22. INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE (2)
    pg 17 anatomy for funeral service
    A bony ridge or ledge on the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.  Conch means shell.

    The inferior nasal concha (Inferior Turbinated Bone) is one of the turbinates in the nose.

    It extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal cavity
  23. PALATINE BONES (2)
    pg 17 anatomy for funeral service
    The palatine bones are two small bones which help form the posterior part of the roof of the mouth. 

    It is from these bones which we get the commonly used word "palate" which refers to the roof of the mouth.
  24. VOMER (1)
    Vomer is Latin for plowshare.  The bone is located on the midline in the base of the nasal cavity.

    Along with the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone it forms the nasal septum, which is the wall that divides the nasal cavity into right and left parts.
  25. COUNTING THE BONES
    • There are 22 bones of the skull
    • 8 are in pairs (two in each pair for a total of 16)
    • 6 bones of the skull are single bones

    • There are 14 bones of the face
    • 6 are in pairs (two in each pair for a total of 12)
    • 2 bones of the face are single bones

    • There are 8 bones of the cranium
    • 2 are in pairs (two in each pair for a total of 4)
    • 4 are single bones
  26. COUNTING THE BONES
    •                  Bones    Pairs    Single
    • Skull            22         08        06
    • Face            14         06        02
    • Cranium       08         02        04

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