Greek Art (part 1)

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    • Dipylon Vase 
    • Era: Geometric, 8th century BCE
    • Location: Dipylon Cemetary, Athens
    • Teachniques:
    • divided into bands/registers
    • play of light and dark
    • stylized human figures with inverted triangle torsos
    • rounded, thin legs and arms
    • arms raised above head creating another triangle - tribute to the deceased
    • meander patterning in certain bands
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    • Geometric Krater
    • Era: Geometric, 740 BCE
    • Location: Dipylon Cemetary, Athens
    • Techniques:
    • krater was a mixing bowl that marked the grave of the Athenian man
    • shows wealth of family
    • bottom is open so that libations can be poured into the ground
    • abstract
    • meander patterning on lip
    • 2 bands of horse drawn figures and charriots
    • human figures at flat, 2-dimensional shapes
    • fills in extra space with circles and m-shaped and ornaments
    • women have their arms above their heads - tearing their hear out with grief
    • women have frontal torsos but profile breasts
    • males have profile penises
    • giant circles with 2 circles cut out are shields being held
    • horse with multiple heads and legs - no recession into space
    • Hirschfeld Painter Workshop thaught these basic techniques
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    • Blinding of Polyphemus
    • Era: Orientalizing Style, 675-650 BCE
    • Location: Eleusis
    • Techniques:
    • 56" tall
    • not geometric but has lots of geometric shapes
    • composite monsters
    • no registers
    • geometric shpaes cut into handles
    • story of Homer's Odyssey (Odysseyus is captured by a cyclops but he blinds the cyclops to escape)
    • fuller figures with trianngular torsos
    • Odysseyus is a white figure because he is the protagonist (not necessarily white=good, black=evil)
    • Gorgons on the bottom part of the vase
    • gorgons have circular torsos and are wearing skirts
    • head is as big as torso
    • curved lines coming out of heads and snakes
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    • Hero and Centaur
    • Era: Orientalizing Style, 750-730 BCE
    • Techniques:
    • 4.5ft tall
    • could be Herakles & Nessos
    • solid cast bronze group
    • composite monster figures - mythological figures
    • Nessos volunteered to carry Herakles’ wife across river & then assaulted her
    • Eastern idea, but Centaur=Greek – don’t know what a centaur looks like – so, full man with animal rear
    • both bearded & wear helmets
    • man = larger – not common for a horse to be smaller, so must mean hierarchy is for designating the victor
    • nude = common portrayal – exercised & Olympic games in nude
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    • Amphora
    • Era: Orientalizing Style, 625-600 BCE
    • Location: Rhodes, Greece
    • Techniques:
    • 1'2" tall
    • means 2-handled jar
    • typical of Greek fascination of Orient
    • in bands - animals like native boar next to exotic lions, panthers, composite creatures like Eastern monsters of sphinx & lamassu—siren (part bird, part woman) on amphora’s neck
    • black-figure painting - 1)put down black silhouettes on clay surface, like Geometric 2) then use sharp pointed instrument to incise linear details within the forms, usually adding highlights in purplish red or white over black before firing vessel
    • weighty black silhouettes,delicate detailing, bright polychrome overlay by Athenians too
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    • Mantiklos Apollo
    • Era: Orientalizing Style, 700-680 BCE
    • Location: Thebes, Greece
    • Techniques
    • bronze
    • 8” tall
    • dedicated by Mantiklos to Apollo
    • pride in ability to write - sculptor scratched into thighs “Mantikos dedicated me as a tithe to the far-shooting
    • Lord of the Silver Bow; you, Phoibos [Apollo], might give some pleasing favor in return.”
    • votive offering - purpose is clear
    • youthful Apollo or Mantiklos or neither - left hand might have had bow, which means deity
    • human anatomy - long hair frames unnaturally elongated neck - pectoral & abdominal muscles, which define stylized triangular torso
    • triangular face has eye sockets once inlaid
    • head may have had separate helmet on it
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    • Plan of Temple A
    • Era: Orientalizing Style, 625 BCE
    • Location: Prinias, Greece
    • Techniques:
    • Greece’s 1st stone temple
    • inspired by East, but form like Mycenaean - honor unknown deity
    • 2 interior columns flanking hearth/sacrificial pit
    • façade had 3 great piers, flat roof
    • above doorway, huge limestone lintel supporting confronting statues of seated women - probably goddesses, tall headdresses & capes
    • 2 others stand in relief on underside of block
    • face of lintel=frieze of Orientalizing panthers with frontal heads - same as amphora
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    • Lady of Auxerre
    • Era: Orientalizing Style, 650-625 BCE
    • Techniques:
    • made of limestone
    • 2'1.5" tall
    • goddess or kore (maiden) - named after French town last recorded in
    • long skirt & cape, but no headdress - small, belted waist & pattern
    • right hand placed across chest - maybe gesture of prayer - then , is a kore
    • flat-topped head framed by long strands of hair form complementary to face
    • almost Geometric treatment of long skirt w/incised concentric squares - bright paint
    • could be “Daedalic” style - after legendary artist, Daedalus “the skillful one”
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    • Francois Vase
    • Artist: Ergotimos (potter) and Kleitias (painter)
    • Era: Attic Black Figure Ware, 575 BCE
    • Location: Chiusi, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • krater-shaped vessel with volute-shaped handles
    • 6 registers with over 200 figures
    • labelled human, animals, and some inanimate objects
    • centaurs crash a wedding
    • doesn't fill in spacewith decorative ornaments
    • composite human figures
    • top and bottom not front and back combination for centaurs
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    • Achilles and Ajax Playing a Dice Game
    • Artist: Exekias (potter and painter)
    • Era: Attic Black Figure Ware, 530-540 BCE
    • Location: Vulci, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • monumental figures in one large framed panel
    • calm before the storm, shields and spears beside them - ready for action at any moment
    • tension between figures
    • pattern in cloaks
    • detail in beards and hair
    • figures match the shape of the vessel
    • profile bodies with frontal eyes
    • more natural profile
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    • Dionysus in a Sailboat
    • Artist: Exekias
    • Era: Attic Black Figure Ware, 550-525 BCE
    • Location: Vulci, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • shallow bowl to hold wine
    • Dionysys - god of wine
    • vines growing out of sails
    • not as glazed
    • dolphins fill in space, not organized
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    • Herakles Strangling Antaios
    • Artist: Euphronios
    • Era: Attic Red Figure Ware, 510-500 BCE
    • Location: Cerveteri, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • extreme attention to human anatomy
    • Antaios got his pwer from the ground so Herakles had to strangle him off the ground
    • Antaios's face is in extreme pain
    • Herakles' hair is darker and he has a perfect coiffure
    • Antaios' hair is lighter and it's messier because he is losing
    • musculature on both figures
    • rejected convential compostie posture, more naturalistic
    • attempt at 3-dimensional space
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    • Revelers
    • Artist: Euthymides
    • Era: Attic Red Figrue Ware, 510-500 BCE
    • Location: Vulci, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • wine storage jar
    • 3 men reveling in the wine they have drunken
    • bodies don't overlap - independent figure study
    • a lot of foreshortening to present a 3/4 view of the figures
    • rounded figures
    • bent over naturally
    • central figure - twisted spine, butt in 3/4 view, seen from back
    • "Euthymides painted me as never Euphronios could do"
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    • Hera
    • Era: Archaic, 560 BCE
    • Location: Samos
    • Techniques:
    • clothed female is usually Hera whereas a nude one is usually Aphrodite
    • peplos (shawl) is stylized
    • folds are incised and not realistic
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    • Kouros
    • Era: Archaic, 570 BCE
    • Location: Tenea
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • kouroi are typically nude males
    • rigidly frontal 
    • left foot forward but level hips and both feet planted on the ground
    • inverted U creates the diaphram
    • arms held beside body but not fully attached, linked at the wrists
    • lossely defined muscles
    • static
    • carved out of one block of stone
    • stylized pattern of hair
    • defined knees, calves, and wristbones
    • archaic smile brings life to the sculpture
    • once painted with bright colors so that it was more animated
    • stood over grave sight
    • differences from Egyptian Art
    •    -liberated from original stone block, no obsession with permance, motion over stability
    •    -usually lacked identifying attributes
    • attributes borrowed from the dedolic style - triangular head, stylized hair, and flat face
    • ears placed very far back on the head
    • long hair makes a backdrop
    • slim waist
    • pointed arch inside of U defines ribs
    • V shaped hips
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    • Calf Bearer
    • Era: Archaic, 560 BCE
    • Location: Athens, Greece
    • Techniques:
    • bringing an offering (calf) to Athenia
    • bearded individual
    • clothed, cloak would have been accented with paint
    • archaic smile
    • man's arms and claf's legs create and X physically and formally uniting the two bodies
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    • Kroisos
    • Era: Archaic, 540-515 BCE
    • Location: Anavysos
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • funerary sculpture 
    • head is not too large for body
    • rounded face with prominent cheeks
    • hair curves more as it hits the shoulders
    • more athletic
    • abdomen is an inverted U but has rippling muscles (abs)
    • slight archaic smile
    • level hips but more rounded and more defined
    • rounded legs
    • stylized kneecaps and calves
    • would've been painted to give it life
    • eyes, lips, and hair would have been painted with an encaustic technique - melt wax and mix in pigment while hot producing a shinier color
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    • Peplos Kore
    • Era: Archaic, 530 BCE
    • Location: Acropolis, Athens
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • very narrow with little body contours
    • simple, long, swollen, belted garment
    • some of the original paint left on the sculpture
    • high cheek bones
    • archaic smile, enigmatic smile adds a hint of something mysterious
    • slightly defined eyebrows
    • long locks flowing over her shoulder
    • hole in ear - would have had an earing
    • one arm was outstretched
    • space inbetween arm and side
    • would have held and attribut that would have defined her
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    • Kore
    • Era: Archaic, 510 BCE
    • Location: Chios
    • Techniques
    • realistic drapery
    • archaic smile
    • fashionable
    • chiton - light linen garment that was from the Ionians also worn with mantle/himation, a heavier linen
    • cascading folds shows the thinner material
    • assymetry of folds break up rigid frontality
    • hair is more stylized but falls more naturally
    • would have been painted with in a very bright green or blue
    • maybe recieveing/giving offering, or holding the rest of her garment in missing arm
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    • The "Basilica" at Paestum or Temple of Hera I
    • Era: Archaic, 550 BCE
    • Location: Paestum, Italy
    • Techniques:
    • stereobate on all sides
    • heavy columns built in sections
    • peristyle collonades 
    • pillow-like capitals - early form of Doric
    • big entablature made it seem as though the columns were buldginout from underneath it
    • columns closely spaced
    • entasis - swelling in the middle of the columns
    • 9 columns on the facade, 3 columns in antis and 18 columns on the side
    • central row of cloumns that divided the cella into two isles - no central doorway
    • ridge pole that the central columns would have held up
    • found in a swampy area that they had to drain
    • missing pediment and most of its entablature
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    • Treasury of the Siphnians 
    • Era: Archaic, 530-525 BCE
    • Location: Sanctuary of Apollo, Delphi
    • Techniques:
    • two female carytids in antis were metaphorical guards
    • set up to store the tribute money for Apollo and the oracle
    • people would guard the votive offerings in addition to the carytids
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    • Battle of the Gods and Giants
    • Era: Archaic, 530-525 BCE
    • Location: Siphnian Treasury at Delphi
    • Techniques:
    • made of marble
    • 2'1" tall
    • gigantomachy - theme of battle between gods and giants - metaphor for the triumph of reason and order over chaos
    • would have been painted with labels painted on as well
    • awkward positions are part of the Archaic style
    • low, middle, and high relief
    • overlap creates recession into space
    • stylized hair and archaic smiles
    • unnatural drapery 
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    • West Pediment of the Temple of Artemis
    • Era: Archaic, 600-580 BCE
    • Location: Corfu
    • Techniques:
    • made of limestone
    • pediment is 9'4" at its tallest point
    • medusa wards off evil
    • her limbs form a pinwheel to suggest movement like running or flying
    • mostly high relief
    • not a chronological storyline
    • no sense of realism
    • Content
    • intertwining snake belt
    • holding Chrysoar in one hand and pegasus in the other - her children/creations
    • flanking medusa - spotted leopards guarding the temple
    • right - Zeus striking down a giant with a thunder bolt
    • far right - fallen giant
    • left - climax of the Trojan War
    • far left - fallen Trojan warrior
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Greek Art (part 1)
2012-09-06 23:51:48

Greek Art
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