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What are some of the problems of new leaders?
- The 'inheritance'
- The others who are elected a t the same time
- How to keep listening, and whom to listen to
- What issues to focus on
- How to hand over leadership
What is the GLOBE definition:
"...the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members."
What is the text book definition of leadership?
the process by which a person exerts influence over others and inspires, motivates and directs their activities to achieve group or organisational goals.
What are some of the features of the trait model of leadership?
- It tries to identify personal characteristics that cause effective leadership.
- Many 'traits' are the result of skills and knowledge.
What are the features of the behaviour models?
- Behaviour model identifies the two basic types of behaviour leaders engage in to exert influence:
- Consideration: employee-centered leadership behaviour
- Initiating structure: job-oriented leadership behaviour
- BOTH BEHAVIOURS ARE INDEPENDENT
What are the two contingency models of leadership?
- Fiedler's leadership model
- House's path-goal model
Fiedler's contingency model
- Effective leadership is contingent on (= depends on) the leader style and characteristics of the situation.
- Leader style is the enduring, characteristic approach to leadership a manager uses. It does not readily change.
- Two broad leadership styles:
- Relationship-oriented (similar to 'consideration' or 'employee-centred')
- Task-oriented (similar to 'initiating structure')
Fiedler: Characteristics of the situation
- 1 Leader-member relations: how much workers like and trust their leader
- 2 Task structure: the extent to which workers tasks are clear-cut
- 3 Position power: the amount of legitimate reward and coercive power leaders have due to their position
What are the three elements that allow us to identify good and poor leadership situations?
- Putting the three elements together: leader-member
- relations, task structure, and position power allows
- us to identify good and poor leadership situations
Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership
House's path - goal theory
- Propses that effective leaders can motivate subordinates by:
- 1. Clearly identifying the outcomes workers are trying to obtain from their jobs
- 2. Rewarding workers for high performance and goal attainment with the outcomes they desire
- 3. Clarifying the paths to the attainment of the goals, removing obstacles to performance and expressing confidence in the ability of workers.
Motivating with House's path-goal
- P-G identifies four leadership behaviours:
- 1. Directive behaviours: Set goals, assign tasks, show workers how to do things.
- 2. Supportive behaviour: look out for the worker's best interests
- 3. Parcipative behaviour: give subordinates a say in matters that affect them.
- 4. Achievement-oriented behaviour: setting very challenging goals, believing in workers' abilities.
Which behaviour to use is contingent on the nature of the subordinates and the tasks.
When are different behaviours necessary for different circumstances.
Comparing Fiedler and House:
- Fiedler: Two leadership styles: relationship and task oriented
- Key contingencies: Whether a relationship or task-oriented leader is effective is contingent on aspects of the situation, i.e. wheter it is favourable to the leader or not.
- House: How effective leaders motivate their followers
- Key Contingencies: Behaviours leaders shoul use are contingent on the nature of subordinates and their work.
- use their reward and coercive powers to encourage high performance - they exchange rewards for performance and punish failure.
- Push subordinates to change but do not seem to change them selves(?)
- Do not have the 'vision' of the tansformational leader.
- through feedback, makes subordinate aware of the importance of their jobs and performance to the organisation.
- Makes subordinates aware of their own needs for personal growth and development.
- Motivates workers to work for the good of the organisation.
- Often associated with charismatic leaders.
- Value of intellectual stimulation, developmental consideration and emotional intelligence (EI)
Eight fundamental elements of emotional intelligence (EI)
- 1. Enhance emotional literacy
- 2. Recognise patterns
- 3. Apply consequential thinking
- 4. Navigate emotions
- 5. Engage intrinsic motivation
- 6. Exercise optimism
- 7. Increase empathy
- 8. Pursue nobal goals
New research in leadership - Leadership and employee engagement - exploring the convergence of two frameworks and implications for leadership development in HRD
three types of leaders
Cultural differences affect leadership
- People orientation v task orientation
- Group orientation v profitability
- Group orientation v individualism
- Long-term v short-term time horizons
- European managers tend to be more people oriented than US or Japanese managers
- Japanese managers tend to be more group orientated than US who are more focused on Profitability
- Australia and Europe have a more individualistic orientation than Japan.
- Time horizons also are affected by cultures, with the US (and now Australia) more short term and Japanese longer term.
GLOBE leadership project
- The Globe researchers asked 17,000+ middle managers in 62 societies about attributes that helped leadership (+ve) or hindered leadership (-ve).
- Results: some attributes universally +ve, some universally –ve, and others were ‘culturally contingent’.
- Leadership is in the “eye of the
- beholder.” Leadership is a social label given to individuals if either
- (a) their personality, attributes, and behaviors sufficiently match theobserver’s beliefs about leaders, or
- (b) the observer attributes group success or failure to the activities of perceived leaders
Which list do you think had the most items?
+ve for leadership
What are the sources of managerial power?
types of power and likely responses from employees
What does Empowerment mean and how does it help managers?
- Means giving workers at all levels more authority to make decisions and responsibility for their outcomes
- Helps managers:
- Get workers involved in the decisions
- Increase worker commitment and motivation
- Have time to focus on other issues
What are the 7 ways to improve your leadership skills
- 1. Have a clear vision of yourself, others and the world.
- 2. Live in accordance with your morals and values.
- 3.Lead others with inclusiveness and compassion.
- 4. Set definitive goals and follow concrete action plans.
- 5. Maintain a positive attitude.
- 6. Motivate others to greatness.
- 7. Be willing to admit and learn from failures and weaknesses.
What is a major problem for leaders?
The more powerful people are, the less people tell them the truth and the less self-aware they can become
summary part 1
- 1. Leadership is a process of influence that inspires, motivates and directs activities to achieve goals.
- 2. Leaders have six types of power available to them.
- 3. Modern managers use empowerment as a tool to increase effectiveness.
- 4. The trait model describes personal characteristics contributing to effective leadership.
- 5. The behaviour model describes two
- leader behaviours: consideration and initiating structure.
summary part 2
- 1. Fiedler's contingency model helps explain why leaders can be effective or ineffective in different situations.
- 2. House's path-goal theory describes how goal setting has the potential to motivate.
- 3. Transformational leadership inspires and energises subordinates.
- 4. Transformational leaders are often charismatic too.
- 5. Leadership is learned through experience and reflection. Theories of leadership help the reflective process.