CH1013 Test 1 Theory

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Padomay
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168660
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CH1013 Test 1 Theory
Updated:
2012-09-03 08:20:17
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Properties Materials Stoichiometry
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Test 1 Theory
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  1. Metallic bonds are characterised as
    metal + metaldelocalised sea valence elections around metal ions
  2. Ionic bonds are characterised as
    metal + non metal Metal Cation (+) + Non Metal Anion (-) eg NaClLow Ionisation Energy + High Electron AffinityElectrostatic attraction between + and -
  3. Covalent Bonds are characterised as 
    non metal + non metal Sharing an electron pair between atoms so result is more stable than constituentseg. Cl2
  4. Network Covalent compounds are characterised as
    Strong covalent bonding throughoutNO molecules3D array in latticeHard, insolubleInsulator or ConductorHigh melting and boiling points
  5. The properties of Covalent compounds are
    Strong Intramolecular bondingWeak Intermolecular bonding (except network covalent structures)Gas, liquid or solidPoor conductorslow melting and boiling point
  6. The properties of Metal are 
    solid or liquidmalleable and ductileelectrical and thermal conductorsmoderate melting pointmoderately high boiling point
  7. The properties of Ionic Compounds are
    solidrigid and brittlehigh melting pointhigh boiling pointpoor conductors
  8. What shape do 2 domains give?
    Linear
  9. What shape do 3 domains give?
    Trigonal Planar
  10. What shape do 4 domains give?
    Tetrahedral
  11. What shape do 5 domains give?
    Trigonal Bipyramidal
  12. What shape do 6 domains give?
    Octahedral
  13. When dissolving molecules in water, what is important?
    Ability to participate in H bonding, eg (Acetic Acid) -COOH readily participates due to lone pair on OH attracting positive H
  14. The two major divisions of polymer are
    1. Biopolymers (carbohydrates, proteins etc)2. Synthetic polymers (rubber, nylon etc)
  15. The 2 main synthetic routes of polymers are
    1. Addition Polymers (polyethylene)2. Condensation Polymers (nylon)
  16. Proteins are
    Polypeptides
  17. The processes of radioactive decay are
    • 1. alpha decay -> -4/2 He Particle2.
    • Beta decay -> - 0/-1 e + 1/1 p3.
    • Gamma decay -> gamma photon
  18. Using Half life in kinetics is given by
    • t1/2 = 0.693/k
    • solve for k k = decay constant[
    • A]o = concentration at initial
    • [A]t = concentration at time
    • rearrange equation time = (ln initial - ln final) /k
  19. The class of an electrolyte is determined by what?
    The conductivity of a solute
  20. What are the characteristics of a weak electrolyte?
    • Covalent compounds
    • partially dissociate into ions
    • Conduct electricity poorly
    • eg. H2O
  21. What are the characteristics of a non electrolyte?
    • Do not dissociate at all
    • Do not conduct at all
    • eg. sucrose stays as sucrose in water
  22. What are the characteristics of a strong electrolyte?
    Ionic compounds which completely dissociate into ionsconduct electricity well
  23. What is the relationship between water molecules and cations?
    It goes down as you go down a group. The cations with a higher charge density attract more water molecules. This is the reverse of the trend of atomic radii. Hydrated ions are more mobile and thus can transfer charges quickly.
  24. What is a Hydrogen Bond?
    A weak attractive force between a hydrogen atom and the lone pair of electrons on atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen and fluorine
  25. What are the two types of Hydrogen Bonding?
    • Intermolecular - between 2 molecules eg H2O and H2O
    • Intramolecular- between 2 parts of the same molecule eg. DNA structure
  26. What conditions must exist for a Hydrogen bond to exist?
    • Donor atom - electron withdrawing group (NOF) taking charge from the hydrogen
    • Acceptor atom - must have available lone pair (NOF)
  27. What 3 factors influence Hydrogen Bond Strength?
    • 1. Electronegativities of donor and acceptor - more electronegativity from donor and more eletrons from acceptor
    • 2. Hydrogen and Acceptor bond length
    • 3. Bond angle should be close to 180 degrees as possible
  28. What is evidence for Hydrogen bonding?
    mp, bp are increased due to H bonding 
  29. What is the difference between First Order Reactions and Second Order Reactions?
    • First Order = -k
    • Second Order = +k
  30. pico = 
    10^-12
  31. Nano =
     10^-9
  32. Micro =
    10^-6
  33. Milli =
    10^-3
  34. Centi= 
    10^-2
  35. Deci = 
    10^-1
  36. Kilo=
    10^3
  37. moles =
    n=m/M
  38. mass =
    m=pV
  39. Concentration =
    C=n/V

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