rearrange equation time = (ln initial - ln final) /k
The class of an electrolyte is determined by what?
The conductivity of a solute
What are the characteristics of a weak electrolyte?
partially dissociate into ions
Conduct electricity poorly
What are the characteristics of a non electrolyte?
Do not dissociate at all
Do not conduct at all
eg. sucrose stays as sucrose in water
What are the characteristics of a strong electrolyte?
Ionic compounds which completely dissociate into ionsconduct electricity well
What is the relationship between water molecules and cations?
It goes down as you go down a group. The cations with a higher charge density attract more water molecules. This is the reverse of the trend of atomic radii. Hydrated ions are more mobile and thus can transfer charges quickly.
What is a Hydrogen Bond?
A weak attractive force between a hydrogen atom and the lone pair of electrons on atoms such as oxygen, nitrogen and fluorine
What are the two types of Hydrogen Bonding?
Intermolecular - between 2 molecules eg H2O and H2O
Intramolecular- between 2 parts of the same molecule eg. DNA structure
What conditions must exist for a Hydrogen bond to exist?
Donor atom - electron withdrawing group (NOF) taking charge from the hydrogen
Acceptor atom - must have available lone pair (NOF)
What 3 factors influence Hydrogen Bond Strength?
1. Electronegativities of donor and acceptor - more electronegativity from donor and more eletrons from acceptor
2. Hydrogen and Acceptor bond length
3. Bond angle should be close to 180 degrees as possible
What is evidence for Hydrogen bonding?
mp, bp are increased due to H bonding
What is the difference between First Order Reactions and Second Order Reactions?