Cells

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Author:
kchardy
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168688
Filename:
Cells
Updated:
2012-09-03 14:02:19
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Cells
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Unit 1 parts of the cell and functionsa
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  1. What part of the cell is in charge of cell division and conrol of genetic information?
    Nucleus
  2. What part of the cell assembles amino acids in protein strands (protien synthesis)?
    Ribosomes
  3. What part of the cell specializes in synthesis and transport of protein and lipid components of cells organelles?
    Endoplasmic reticulum
  4. What part of the cell acts as a refining plant to direct traffic?  (protein, polysaccharide molecules)
    Golgi Complex
  5. What part of the cell is the intracellular digestive system?
    Lysosomes
  6. What part of the cell plays a role in cellular energy metabolism and generates the cell's ATP?
    Mitochondria
  7. What is the mechanism by which energy is produced from carbs, fats, and protiens is transferred to ATP? 
    Oxidative Phosphorylation
  8. Active transport moves across only living membranes that have two properties.  What are they?
    • 1) Use energy generated by cellular metabolism
    • 2) Have receptors that are capable of recogniazing and binding with substance to be transported.  
  9. Example of active transport?
    • Large molecules, along with fluids are trasnported by means of endyocytosis(taking in) and exocytosis(expelling)
    • Water and electrically charged molecules are trasnported by protien channels embedded in plasma membrane. 
  10. The movement of solute molecule from an area of greater solute concentration to an area of lesser solute concentration is what?
    Diffusion
  11. The movement of water and solutes through a membrane because of greater pushing pressure on one side of the membrane than the other side is what?
    Filtration
  12. The mechanical force of water pushing against cellular membranes is what?
    Hydrostatic pressure
  13. The movement of water "down" a concentration gradient, or semipermiable membrane from a region of higher water concentration to a lower water concentration is what?
    Osmosis
  14. The amount of hydrostatic pressure required to oppose the osmotic movement of water is called what?
    Osmotic pressure
  15. Describe the Na-K+ pump action?
    • Excitable tissues(muscle,nerve) have high concentration of Na+-K+ ATPase
    • For every ATP molecule hydrolyzed, three molecules of Na+ are trasnported out of the cells, wheras only two molecules of K+ move into the cell.  
    • Process leads to electrical potential called electgrogenic, with the inside of the cell more negative than the outside.  
  16. What is a section of plasma membrane that enfolds substances from outside the cell, invaginates (folds inward), and separates from the plasma membrane, forming a vesicle?
    Endocytosis
  17. What is the discharge or secretion of material from the intracellular vesicles at the cell surface?
    Exocystosis
  18. Cell Junctions
    1) Desmosomes
    hold cells together by forming continuous bands or belts
  19. Cell Junctions
    2) Tight junctions
    Barrier to diffusion, prevents movement of substances, prevents leakage of small molecules
  20. Cell Junctions
    3) Gap Junctions
    Clusters of communicating tunnels that allow ions/molecules to pass directly from inside one cell to another. 
  21. Plasma membrane receptors determine 2 things.  What are they?
    • 1) Determine which ligands a cell will bind with
    • 2) How the cell will respond to binding with each
  22. What are three types of plasma membrane receptors?
    Please see page 15, table 1-2
    • 1) Channel linked - rapid synaptic signals between electrically excitable cells
    • 2) Catalytic - function intracellularly as tyrosine-specific protien kinases
    • 3) G-protien linked - active or inactive plamsa membrane enzyme or ion channel.
  23. All the chemical tasks of maintaining essential cellular functions are referred to as what?
    Cellular metabolsim
  24. The energy-using process of  metabolism is called what?
    Anabolism
  25. The energy-releasing process is called what?
    Catabolism

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