Card Set Information
Potassium Calcium Phosphate Magnesium
Normal and imbalances of electrolytes and body reactions
Name two mechanisms which bring K+ into the cell
Beta adrenergic stimulation
Name two mechanisms that moves K+ out of the cell
What hormone regulates potassium
What is the normal range of potassium level?
What are symptoms of K+ overload?
What will an electrocardiogram reading show in the case of high potassium
Tall, tented T waves (mild)
Depressed ST, prolonged PR, wide QRS (severe)
What are causes of high potassium levels
potassium sparing diuretics
What are the causes of low potassium levels
Renal tubular acidosis
Vomiting or nasogastric suctioning
Medications - diuretics, beta-adrenergic agonisits, theophylline
What are some physical signs of low potassium
Hypoventilation or respiratory distress
What are the cardiac responses to low potassium
Premature atrial or ventricular beats
What is the normal range for Calcium
What causes high calcium levels?
Hyperparathyoridism - causes increased GI absorption without recnal excretion
Metastatic bone cancer - increased osteoclastic activity
Ingestion/infusion of calcium
What are the symptoms of high calcium?
Alterations in mental status
Adominal or flank pain (think of GI manifestations and bone mets)
Weakness and joint aches
What are causes of low calcium?
Malabsorption of Calcium or vitamin D from gut - Crohn's, sprue, pancreatitis, gastric resection or bypass or gastrojejunostomy
Lack of sun exposure
What are symptoms of low calcium?
What is the normal level of phosphorus?
What are causes of low phorphorus?
Vitamin D Deficiency
Manesium/aluminum products (Antancids)
Alcohol abuse (long term)
What are symptoms of low phosphorus levels?
Weakness of skelatal or smooth muscle
Rhabdomyolysis via ATP depletion (alcohol withdrawal)
Confusion, seizures, and coma
Where is magnesium absorbed and excreted
Absorbed in ileium
excreted by stool and urine
What organ regulates magnesium levels?
Kidneys - stores in bone may be mobilized as needed.
What are causes of high magnesium?
Errors in administration
Inadequate excretion from kidney or gut
Release of cellular manesium by tumor lysis syndrome, rhabdomylosis
What are symptoms of high magnesium
2-4 - nausea and vomiting, sking flushing, weakness, lightheadedness
3.5-5 - Disapperance of deep tendon reflex, Muscle weakness
5-6 - Hypotension, vasodilation
8-10 Arrythmia, atrial fibrillation
>10 asystole, heart block, coma, death
What are the causes of low magnesium levels?
GI loss - malabsorption, radiation injury to bowel, diarrhea, laxative abuse, neoplasm
Endocrine - primary aldosteronism
What are symptoms of low magnesium levels
Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes
Troousseu and Chvostic sings
Dysarthria and dysphagia
CNS excitability - irritability and combativeness, disorientation, pyschosis, ataxia
Why is it important to to measure both bound and ionized calcium levels?
Of the calcium in plasma, 50% is bound to plasma protiens, and about 40% is in the free or ionized form.
Ionzied calcium has the most important physiciolgic findings.
What functions does calcium play in the body
Major cation for structure of bones and teeth
Enzymatic cofactor for blood clotting
Required for hormone secretion
Needed for function of cell receptors
Where is intracellular calcium located?
In the mitochondria
What is the function of phosphate in the body
Functions acts as intracellular and extracellular anion buffer in the regulation of acid-base balance.
In the form of ATP, it provides energy for muscle contraction.