Behavioral Neuroanatomy

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Behavioral Neuroanatomy
2012-09-03 16:14:28

Brain Functions and Lesions
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  1. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
    • planning, concentration and executive function
    • mood regulation
  2. Orbitofrontal Cortex
    • Aids in behavioral inhibition and judgement
    • part of dopamine mediated "reward circuit"
    • functions as the "filter"
  3. Medial Cortex
    motor function
  4. Damage to Broca's Area
    • Non-fluent, "broken" speech
    • preserved repetition
    • preserved comprehension
  5. Damage to Frontal Lobe
    • perseveration
    • disinhibition
    • anger outbursts
    • (possibly) the return of primitive sucking and rooting reflexes
  6. Damage to Left frontal lobe
  7. Damage to right frontal lobe
  8. Temporal Lobe
    • Memory
    • Learning
    • Auditory Processing
    • Emotion
  9. Damage to Temporal Lobe
    • Memory impairment
    • Psychomotor seizures (olfactory hallucinations)
    • Inability to understand language (damage to Wernicke's area)
  10. Damage to Wernicke's Area
    • Speech rhythm sounds like language, but makes no sense
    • comprehension impaired
    • repetition impaired
  11. Parietal Lobe
    • Intellecutal function
    • sensation
    • speech
    • movement
  12. Damage to Right parietal lobe
    • problems with visuospatial processing
    • contralateral hemineglect
  13. Damage to Left parietal lobe
    • Language deficits (cannot process language)
    • Gerstmann's syndrome (Can't name fingers, right-left confusion, can't do simple math)
  14. Limbic Lobe
    Ties memory to emotional states
  15. Hippocampus
    Memory storage
  16. Amygdala
    • Assigns emotional relevance to memories
    • coordinates somatic response to stress (especially fear, anger, aggression)
  17. Damage to Hippocampus
    no new memory formation (anterograde amnesia)
  18. Damage to Amygdala
    • Kluver-Bucy Syndrome
    • decreased fear response
    • inability to recognize facial and vocal cues of anger in others
  19. Basal Ganglia
    • Coordination and fine-tuning of motor activity, behavioral motivation, executive function, and emotional expression
    • receives input from the cerebral cortex and transfers the information to the frontal lobes via the thalamus
    • translates the desire to move into executed movment
  20. Damage to substantia nigra
    Parkinson's disease
  21. Damage to caudate (atrophy)
    Huntington's disease
  22. Damage to subthalamic nuclei
  23. Mamillary Bodies
    serves in memory formation and storage
  24. Damage to Mamillary Bodies
    • memory loss
    • psychosis
    • confabulation
  25. Thalamus
    • Master relay center between brainstem and higher structures
    • Involved with the Reticular Activating System to maintain arousal and consciousness
  26. Damage to Thalamus (a small lesion)
    loss of consciousness, coma, or persistent vegetative state
  27. Hypothalamus
    modulates physiologic responses (hormone secretion, circadian rhytms, thirst, etc)