REVIEW FOR EXAM #1

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emiles4311
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168743
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REVIEW FOR EXAM #1
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2012-09-04 00:24:12
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EXAM
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Chapters 1, 2, and 3 / labs 1 and 2
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  1. Convert measurements of length,
    volume, and mass in metric units
  2. Describe tests for organic compounds used in lab 2
  3. Describe the steps of the scientific method
    • Observation-what you can know with your senses, unbiased
    • Hypothesis– a tentative explanation for an observation or problem
    • Experimentation– the test of the hypothesis designed to support or falsify the prediction
    • Conclusion-the data gathered from the experiment is analyzed to determine whether it supports or does not support the hypothesis
  4. Design a controlled experiment using the steps of
    the scientific method
  5. List and explain the characteristics of life
    • 1. Life reflects its ancient molecular orgins (DNA)
    • 2. Life:
    • Is contained by cells and organized
    • Metabolizes, caputring and using energy and materials
    • Has the capactiy to reproduce, grow, and develop (DNA)
    • Has a way of sensing and responding to specific changes in the environment.
    • Possess adaptations and species are capable of evolving (DNA)
    • 3. LIVING THINGS ARE CONSTANTLY CHANGING


  6. Explain the levels of organization of life on
    earth
    • Cells are organized into tissues (Organized array of cells and substances that interact in a collective task.)
    • tissues into organs (Structural unit of interacting tissues.)
    • organs into organ systems  (A set of interacting organs.) 
    • organ systems into multicelled organisms (Individual that consist of different types of cells.)
    • There are levels of organization
    • which extend beyond the individual organism: populations, communities,
    • ecosystems, and the biosphere                     
    •                       
  7. Explain which subatomic particles are most
    important in determining chemical properties and why
  8. Recognize and describe the difference between
    ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds
  9. List and explain the properties of water and
    their importance for life
  10. Define pH and give examples of acids and bases
  11. List the four types of biochemical molecules,
    their functions, and give examples of each
  12. Testable Hypothesis
    • I wonder
    • What do I know?
    • If what I suspect is true, what can I predict? (If...then...)
    • If I can't reasonably test my hypothesis, this cannot be science!
  13. Theory
    A scientific theory is a wellsubstantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment.
  14. Scientific Theories
    A theory is a comprehensive explanation of some aspect of nature that is supported by a vast body of evidence.

    A theory has broader application than a hypothesis. It must accuately describe an entire set of observations and it must accuately predict future results from those observations.

    A theory is not "absolute truth" but it consistent with all other theories and has not been disproved after years of trying

    The fact that an idea, or even a theory, might be subject to change is a strength of science, not a weakness.
  15. Levels of organization beyond the individual organism
    • population- Group of single-celled or multicelled individuals of a species in a given area.
    • community- All population of all species in a specified area.
    • ecosystem- a community interacting with its physical environment  through the transfer of energy and materials.
    • biosphere- The sum of all ecosystem every region of Earth's waters, crust, and atomsphere in which organisms live.
  16. Taxonomy
    • The develop of classification schemes
    • Domain     Did
    • Kingdom   King
    • Phylum      Phillip 
    • Class         Come
    • Order       Over
    • Family       For
    • Genera     Good
    • Species    Spaghetti
  17. Species Names

    Two-part naming system devised by Carolus Linnaeus
    • Organisms identified by genus and species name
    • Genus name is capitalized, species name is not
    • Both names are in italics or underlined if handwritten
    • Genus name may be abbreviated after first use.
  18. Genus and Species
    • Species: One kind of organism
    • Each species has a two-part name
    • 1. First part: Genus name
    • 2. Combined with the second part, it designates one paticular species
  19. Three Domains Recognized
    • Archaea- (Archaebacteria) many anaerobic, may be closer evolutionary to eukarya.
    • Bacteria- (Eubacteria) extremely diverse, some ancient Lineages
    • Eukarya- Eukaryotes, containing a membrane-bound nucleus
  20. Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
    • Archaea and Bacteria are Prokaryotic, which means these cells lack a nucleus.
    • Eukarya are eukaryotic (having a true nucleus that houses the DNA)
  21. Kingdoms of Eukarya
    • Protista(Protists)- one-celled organisms; producers or consumers. (May be a separate domain)
    • Fungi-molds, mushrooms; extracellular digestion, mostly decomposers.
    • Plantae(Plants)- familiar multicellular plants: mostly producers.
    • Animalia(animal)- multicellular animals from sponges to humans; consumers.
  22. Energy
    • the capacity to do work
    • transferred throughout the universe
  23. Nothing Lives Without Energy
    Metabolism
    • the cell's capacity to: extract, convert, and concentrate energy from its surrounding
    • use energy for maintenance, growth, and reprodution

    Plants acquire energy from sunlight
  24. Interdependence Among Organisms
    • Energy flows from the sun
    • Plants (producers) trap this energy by photosynthesis.
    • Animals (consumers) feed on stored energy in plants
    • Bacteria and fungi (decomposers) break down complex molecules of other organisms to recycle raw materials
  25. Energy Flow
    • Energy flows in one direction
    • Eventually, all energy flows back to the environment as waste heat
  26. DNA, Energy, and Life

     Nothing lives without 
    • DNA: the molecule of inheritance, development, and evolution
    • Energy: the capacity to do work

    Living and nonliving things are made of the same particles, operating according to phyiscal laws governing.

    DNA is the special molecule that sets the living world apart from the nonliving.
  27. HERITABILITY OF DNA
    Each organism is part of a reproductive continuum that extends back through countless generations.

    Each organism arises through reproduction in which DNA instructions are transmitted from parents to offspring.

    DNA guides the production of proteins in the cell. Proteins perform most most of the cell's functions.
  28. DNA guides 
     the development of a fertilized egg into a multicellular organism.
  29. Sensing and Responding to Energy
    • Organisms sense changes in the environment and make controlled responses to them. 
    • Special cells receive stimuli and make appropriate reponses.
    • Homeostasis is the maintenance of a tolerable internal environment.
  30. An Evolutionary View of Diversity
    Mutation == Original Source of Variation

    Hereditary instructions are encoded in molecules of DNA.

    Variation in hereditary instructions arise through mutation.

    Mutations are changes in the kind, structure, sequence, or number of parts of DNA.

    Many mutations are harmful but some may be harmless or even beneficial  (adaptive).
  31. Artificial Selection
    Darwin reasoned that the practice of artificial selection used by pigeon breeders could serve as a model for his theory of natural selection. 
  32. Natural Selectio: Darwin's Theory
    Populations grow past the environment's ability sustain them. Individuals compete for resources

    Members of a species vary in form and behavior; much of the variation is heritable.

    Some varieties of heritable traits will improve survival and reproductive chances; they are adaptive.

    Those with improved chances, will be more likely to reproduce (differential reproduction) and pass the  adaptive traits on with greater frequency in future generations (natural selection).
  33. Evolution
    • Evolution is the change of gene frequency in a population over time.
    • Any population evolves when some forms of traits increase in frequency andothers decrease or disappear over generations.
  34. The Two Pillars Of Biology
    • Evolution
    • Population change to better fit their environment 

    That evolution occurs in nature is a fact; how evolution is carried  out in specific cases is under intense study

    • Energy Flow
    • Living things must acquire energy from the non-living environment.

    Organisms use this eneryg to maintain themselves and to reproduce.
  35. Characteristics of Living Things
    • Reproduce, Grow and Develop
    • Made of one or more cells, organized
    • Metabolize- metabolism is the ability to acquire, store, transfer, or utilize energy
    • Maintain hoeostasis-- sense and make controlled reponses to environment (insulin and blood sugar control)
    • Possess Adaptations- mutable, inheritable DNA allows for evolution

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