The fluid inside the cell that contains the organelles, water, and dissolved materials.
Mitochondria, lysosomes, golgi complex, sm/rgh ER... etc.
Most of the cells in multicellular organisms are surrounded by a complex mixture of nonliving material that makes up the extracellular matrix (ECM).
In some cases, the ECM accounts for more of the organism's bulk than its cells.
In plants, the ECM is primarily composed of cellulose. [Link to a discussion.]
In arthropods and fungi, the ECM is largely composed of chitin.
In vertebrates, the ECM is made of a complex mixture of carbohydrates and proteins (plus minerals in the case of bone).
House the genetic information and direct many cellular functions.
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
contains genetic info and directs many cellular functions.
DNA combined with Protein.
A Metaphase Chromosomes align between the poles of the cell
B Anaphase Chromosomes separate at the centromere (daughter chromosomes)
C Telophase- daughter chromosomes unwind into cromatid
D Cytokinesis- splitting of the cell's cytoplams into two parts
E Prophase- Condensation of chromatin into chromosomes. nuclear membrane disassembles.
Interphase contains the G1,S, G2 phases of the cell cycle.
G1- growth and production of organelles.
S (Synthesis phase) DNA replication
G2- growth and preparation for mitosis.
consist of two chromatids held at the center by a centromere.
Hold the chromatids together.
spindle fibers, which attach to the chromosomes.
Centrioles are cylindrical structures that are composed of groupings of microtubules arranged in a 9 + 3 pattern. The pattern is so named because a ring of nine microtubule "triplets" are arranged at right angles to one another.Centrioles are found in animal cells and help to organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division. Centrioles replicate during the interphase stage of mitosis and meiosis. Centrioles called basal bodies form cilia and flagella.
spindle fibers extend from the cell poles toward the midpoint of the cell known as the metaphase plate. Chromosomes are held at the metaphase plate by the equal forces of the spindle fibers pushing on thecentromeres of the chromosomes.
located around each pair ofcentrioles. They appear to be shaped like a star and are involved in the cleavage process of cell division. During cleavage, the cell divides into two cells.
Where chromosomes align during cell division. (middle of the cell)
During anaphase when the chromosomes seperate each chromatid is called a daughter chromosome.
The splitting of the cells' cytoplasm into two parts.
The plasma membrane begins to constrict at this region during anaphase/telophase.
movement of particles from a place of high concentration to low concentration. down the concentration gradient.
water flow through a selective permeable membrane.
having a higher osmotic pressure than human cells causing osmotic shrinking of cells.
lower osmotic pressure than human cells causing osmotic swelling and lysis of cells.
same osmotic pressure.
the contraction of a cell after exposure to a hypertonic solution, due to the loss of water through osmosis.
is the breakdown of red blood cells
selectively permeable membrane
being permeable to only certain molecules and not to allmolecules.