Bacterial Invasion of the Cell

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Bacterial Invasion of the Cell
2012-09-03 18:19:08
Bacteria pseudomonas exotoxin endotoxin

Bacterial Invasion of the cell. UNIT 3, Chapter 9, Infection
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  1. There are 5 stages of pathogenisis  name them in order
    • Stage 1 - Transmission from source to portal of entry
    • Stage 2 - Evasion of primary host defenses (innate immunity)
    • Stage 3 - Adherence to mucous membranes
    • Stage 4 - Colonization by growth in numbers
    • Stage 5 - Exotoxin/endotoxin production
  2. What are common modes of transmission for bacteria?
    • Airborne
    • Fecal contamination of food and water
    • Transfer of blood
  3. What type of transmission includes airborne, fecal, trasnsfer of blood.  Horizonontal or vertical?
  4. What type of transmission includes transplacental, within birth canal, or breast milk?  Horizontal or vertical
  5. What type of conditions cause host defenses to fail?
    • Low antibody counts
    • Low complement counts
    • Low WBC counts
    • Pyrogenic bacteria(staph, strep)
  6. Characteristics of bacterium
    What are thin rod-like projections from bacterial surface that allow bacterium to attach to urinary tract epithelium?
    • Pili
    • Such as e. Coli
  7. Characteristics of bacterium
    What are fingers that attach to urethra to cause infection called?
    • Fimbriae 
    • Such as in gonnorhea
  8. Characteristics of bacterium
    What are surface protiens that deter binding and interact with factor XII
    • Culri
    • Such as in E Coli/Salmonella
  9. What role does collagenase play in bacterial colonization?
    Breaks down the surface so can get in the cell
  10. What role does hyaluronides play in bacterial colonization?
    Spreading factor, cells no longer stick together
  11. What role does coagulase play in bacterial colonization?
    • acceleratees clot formation
    • prevents bacteria from phagocytosis by walling off 
    • coats organisms by fibrin (clotting)
  12. What role does protease play in bacterial colonization?
    Allows adherence to mucous membranes
  13. What role does leukocidins play in bacterial colonization?
    Destroy neutrophils and macrophages (kills WBCs)
  14. Exotoxin or Endotoxin
    Proteins released during bacterial growth?
  15. Exotoxin or Endotoxin
    Lipopolysaccharides contained in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and relased during lysis of the bacteria
  16. Exotoxin or Endotoxin
    Can damage cell membranes, activate second messengers, and inhibit protein synthesis
  17. Exotoxin or Endotoxin
    Immunogenic and elicit production of antibodies...thus vaccines available
  18. Exotoxin or Endotoxin
    Stimulate the realsease of inflammatory mediators, produce fever, and local systemic effects
  19. Exotoxin or Endotoxin
    Not made by bacteria, but part of the cell wall
  20. Why is pseudomonas considered an opportunistic bacteria?
    • Can infect any tissue (usually only with immune compromised)
    • Resistant to antibiotics due to its "biofilm" protection
  21. What is the property of skin with pseudomonas? (think of inclass example)
    • Wetness 
    • endothelium is wet
    • sputum is increased drainage
  22. What is the organism that resists phagocytosis, multiplies rapidly, destroys complement, Produces hemolytic toxins, and nucleases pus?
    Streptococcus Group A
  23. What is the most fatal form of streptococcus group A?
    • Necrotizing fasciitis
    • stimulates T cells to produce large amounts of cytokines to attract macrophages and leukocytes, which leads to degranulation, damage to endothemlium, and other exotoxins destroy proteins of host tissue.  (self destruction)
  24. What is the type of streptococcus infection that cuases bacterial endocarditis from organisms that gain access to blood? 
    Heart valves
    Strep Veridans
  25. What are some of the causes for strep veridans
    • Tooth extraction
    • poor oral hygiene
    • decayed teeth
    • Drug users with contaminated needles
  26. What happens to the heart with strep veridans infection?
    Scar tissue builds up into a cauliflower-type growth and interferes with proper valve function
  27. What is the property of skin with Staphylococcal infection?
    Walling off - produces coagulase that produces a wall and is creamy white and stiff like jello.
  28. Where do staph infections come from?
    clothing, bedding, droplets, human carriers - skin, bone, respiratory tract, blood stream
  29. What is the organism that hydrolyzes the beta-lactam ring of penicillin, thereby inactivating the molecule?
    Saphylococcal bacteria
  30. Systemic Inflammatory Response (SIRS) requires 2 or more changes in the following 4 factors.  What are the 4 factors?
    • Body Temperature
    • Heart Rate
    • Respiratory function
    • Peripheral leukocyte count
  31. Sepsis must meet the criteria for SIRs(systemic inflammatory response) AND what other condition?
    Must of documented infection.