the nature of science

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the nature of science
2012-09-03 21:23:06
Nature Science 8th grade science chptr

definitions of terms relating to scientific method, etc.
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  1. inference
    a logical explanation of an observation that is drawn from prior knowledge or experience
  2. hypothesis
    a possible explantation about an observation that can be tested by scientific investigations
  3. glassware and safety rule
    used to hold, heat , pour and measure liquids

    flasks, beakers, petri dishes, test tubes, specimen jars

    unit of measure in the liter (l) or milliliter (ml)

    l x w x h = volume
  4. biology
    study of  life

    bios=life logia=study
  5. thermometer
    measures temperature of substances in degrees Celsius

    (never use a thermometer to stir anything)
  6. description
    a spoken or written summary of observations
  7. explanation
    an interpretation of observations
  8. Life Science
    the study of all living things
  9. Earth Science
    study of Earth and space including landforms, rocks, soil, and forces that shape Earth's surface
  10. Physical Science
    the sutdy of chemistry and physics

    interactions of matter and energy
  11. Internation System of Units
    an international system for measurement
  12. ways a scientist can minimize bias in scientific investigations
    blind study- investigator/subject do not know which item they are testing

    repition- if results vary greatly, then one of the investigations is flawed

    samping- study small amts of something to learn about the larger whole.
  13. variable
    any factor in an experiment that can have more than one value
  14. flow chart
    a sequence of skills or methods that a scientist might use in an investigation
  15. constants
    the factors in an experiment that remain the same
  16. significant digits
    the number of digits in  a measurement that are known with a certain degree of reliability
  17. accuracy
    a description of how close a measurement is to an accepted or true value
  18. science
    the investigation and exploration of natural events and ot the new information that results from those investigations
  19. predicition
    a statement of what will happen next in a sequence of events
  20. technology
    the practical use of scientific knowledge, especially for industrial or commercial use
  21. critical thinking
    comparing what you already know with the information you are given in order to decide whther you agree with it
  22. balance
    • triple beam or electric
    • used to measure mass in kg or g

    do not let objects drop heavily onto balance
  23. observation
    using one or more of your senses to gather information and take note of what occurs
  24. scientific theory
    an explanation of observations or events based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations
  25. dependant variable
    the factor measured or observed during an experiment
  26. independant variable
    the factor that you want to test, changed by the investigator to observe how it affects a dependant variable
  27. scientific law
    describes a pattern or an event in nature that is always true
  28. compound microscope
    `enables you to observe small objects that you cannot observe with just your eyes
  29. qualitative data
    uses wordst to describe what is observed
  30. quantitative data
    uses numbers to describe what is observed
  31. theory vs. law
    both based on repeated observations and can be rejected or modified

    • SL states what event WILL occur
    • ST is an explanation of WHY or HOW  an event occured
  32. precision
    how similar repeated measurements are
  33. scientific notation
    a method of writing or displaying very small or very large values in a shortened form
  34. percent error
    expression of error as a  percentage of the accepted value
  35. controlled experiment
    scientific investigation that answers  questions, tests hypotheses, and collects data to determine how one factor affects another
  36. experimental group
    used to study how a change in the independant variable changes the dependant variable
  37. control group
    contains the same factors as the experimental group but the independant variable is not changed