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Development of concepts about the natural world, often by using scientific method.
A process by which we learn about the physical world.
Is a way of acquiring knowledge about the natural world through a systematic process separating it from ethics, religion and aestetics.
All physical events have a physical explanation.
The science or study of the practical or industrial arts.
The application of scientific knowledge to human interests.
Maintenance of normal internal conditions in a cell or an organism by means of self-regulating mechanisms,
Maintain a relatively constant internal environment.
Staying the same.
All of the chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
Use materials and energy from the environment.
To produce a new individual of the same type.
Increase the number of cells and/or the size of these cells.
Group of stages by which a zygote becomes an organism or by which an organism changes during its life span; includes puberty and aging, for example.
Organism's modification in structure, function, or behavior suitable to the environment.
Evolutionary history through which organisms change over time.
Descent of organisms from common ancestors with the development of genetic and phenotypic changes over time that make them more suited to the environment.
Change in the internal or external environment that a sensory receptor can detect, leading to nerve impulses in sensory neurons.
List and define the steps of the scientific method
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- Observe - recognize problem or unanswered question.
- Define the problem -
- Hypothesize - develop hypothesis to explain problem.
- Test/Experiment - design and perform experiment to test hypothesis.
- Data - analyze and interpret data to reach conclusions.
- Conclusion - the hypothesis is supported or rejected.
List and define the parts needed in a good experiment
- Repeats/large sample size – experiment/results can be similarly duplicated. Large number of subjects in experiment.
- Control – sample that goes through all the steps of the experiment but lacks the factor or is not exposed to the factor being.tests; a standard against which results of an experiment are checked.
- Dependent Variable – the variable measured by the experimenter.
- Independent Variable – a variable that is intentionally changed to observe its effect on the dependent variable.
- Controlled Variable – a variable that is used as a constant and unchanging standard of comparison in scientific experimentation.
List and define the three major branches of science.
- Earth/Space – geology/astronomy
- Physical – chemistry, physics
Life – biology, zoology
List in order of smallest to largest the levels of biological organization.
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- Organ system
List the eight characteristics of living things
- Are organized
- Acquire materials and energy
- Are homeostatic
- Respond to stimuli
- Have an evolutionary history
List in order of largest to smallest the levels of biological classification.
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List the six characteristics that separate humans from the rest of the animal kingdom.
- Highly developed brains
- Completely upright stance
- Creative language
- Ability to use a wide variety of tools
- Cultural heritage or patterns of our behavior passed from one generation to the next, outside of genetic inheritance
- Modification of our environment for our own purpose.
Anything that takes up space and has mass.
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Smallest particle of an element that displays the properties of the element.
The smallest possible sample of a particular element.
Substance that cannot be broken down into substances with different properties; composed of only one type of atom.
- A substance that cannot be broken down by chemical
Union of two or more atoms of the same element; the smallest part of a compound that retains the properties of the compound.
Are made of atoms that are bonded together; can be made of the same element or different elements.
Substance having two or more different elements united chemically in a fixed ratio.
A molecule made up of two or more elements.
One of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but a different atomic mass due to the number of neutrons.
Atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neurons. Isotopes of an element are chemically identical but differ in mass.
Charged particle that carries a negative or positive charge.
A charged atom, with a different number of protons and electrons, will be shown with a charge.
Number of protons within the nucleus of an atom.
The number of protons in an atom.
atomic mass number
Mass of an atom equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons with the nucleus.
Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
When the nucleus of an atom is falling apart, neutrons and protons are separating.
Energy in the form of waves.
Weak bond that arises between a slightly positive hydrogen atom of one molecule and a slightly negative atom of another, or between parts of the same molecule.
Polar covalent bond, the transient attraction of the positive charge of the hydrogen atom to the slightly negative charges of other atoms, too weak to bond atoms together permanently as in covalent or ionic bonds, collectively significant effect.
Atoms share electrons equally.
Result from polar covalent bonds (unequal sharing), have weak positive and negative sides (“poles”)
Energy required to change temperature.
heat of vaporization
The amount of heat needed to vaporize a liquid.
substance or group of substances that tend to resist pH changes of a solution, thus stabilizing its relative acidity and basicity.
Substance that resists/prevents a change in pH.
Molecules that raise the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and lower its pH numerically.
Substances that dissociate and release hydrogen atoms, have high concentrations of H+.
Molecules that lower the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution and raise the pH numerically.
Substances that take up hydrogen atoms or release hydroxyl ions; have low concentration of H+, but high concentration of OH-.
List the three parts of an atom. For each part, give its location, charge and mass.
- a- Proton – nucleus, positive charge, mass of 1 dalton.
- b- Neutron – nucleus, no charge, mass of 1 dalton.
- c- Electron – orbital, negative charge, essentially no mass.
List the forms of radiation from lowest energy to highest.
- a- Radio
- b- Infrared
- c- Visible light
- d- Ultra-violent
- e- X-ray
- f- Gama
Which types of radiation can be harmful to life?
- a- Ultra-violent
- b- X-ray
- c- Gama
If we say something is "radioactive", what type of radiation is involved?
Why do atoms bond?
To become stable, to have a full outer orbital.
Explain the "Octet Rule."
An atom has 2 electrons in the 1st orbital, and have 8 electrons in all other orbitals.
What are the two types of chemical bonds? Define them. Which is the most common in nature?
- a- Ionic bonds. Bonds between atoms which give up or
- take electrons.
b- Covalent bond. Bonds in which electrons are shared, atoms share pairs of electrons so that each completes its valence shell. The most common bond formed in nature.
List the six properties of water.
- a- Liquid at “room” temps.
- b- Universal solvent.
- c- Cohesive and adhesive.
- d- High specific heat.
- e- High heat of vaporization.
- f- Ice floats.
Discuss how each property of water is biologically significant.
- a- Liquid at “room” temps – we can drink it, cook with it and bathe in it; helpful to living things, cells are made up of water.
- b- Universal solvent – dissolves almost anything polar, salts and sugars.
- c-Cohesive and adhesive – allows water to line membranes and provide lubrication, allows plants to soak up water and allows blood to stick to the sides of the vessels and fill them completely.
- d- High specific heat – keeps living things from vaporizing and climate implications.
- e- High heat of vaporization – keeping hte body from overheating; allows evaporative cooling; allows alot of heat to be removed from the body by evaporation of sweat.
- f- Ice floats – implications for the climate and life on earth; fresh water supply is dependent on ice; entire ecosystems depend on ice (polar bear).
What does pH measure?
pH measures the concentration of H+ (and OH-).
Give examples of acids and bases.
a- Acids – lemon juice, vinegar, tomato juice, urine, black coffee.
b- Bases – seawater, milk of magnesia, household ammonia, bleach, oven cleaner.
What is the pH scale and what does each jump up or down mean numerically?
a- A measure of hydrogen ion concentration, working scale is between 0 and 14 with 7 being neutral.
b- Each one unit represents a tenfold change in H+ concentration.
organic molecules, a molecule that contains carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) and is usually associated with living things.
all of the chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
All chemical reactions in an organism.
Splitting of a compound by the addition of water, with the H+ being incorporated in one fragment and the OH- in the other.
Adding water to split a molecule.
Removing water to combine two monomers.
An atom or a small molecule that may bind chemically to other monomers to form a polymer.
A substance that has a molecular structure consisting chiefly or entirely of a large number of simlar units bonded together.
Anything that speeds up a chemical reaction without being part of the reaction.
A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction with itself undergoing any permanent chemical change.
Type of covalent bond that joins two amino acids.
Combine amino acids to form proteins.
List the four biomolecules.
a- give the monomer of each.
b- give the structure of the monomer.
- i- Carbohydrates – monosaccharides – 5-6 Cs in a ring
- ii- Lipids – triglyceride or fatty acids – extremely long chains of Cs
- iii- Proteins – amino acid – protein molecules are gigantic, very complex 3D shape
- iv- Nucleic acids – nucleotide – double stranded helix, single stranded
What are sugars and what are they used for?
A single sugar molecule, building blocks of more complex carbs and are used for energy now.
List the four carbohydrate polymers(polysaccharides).
a- give the source of each.
b- give the function of each.
- i- Starch – plants – long-term energy.
- ii- Glycogen – animals – long-term energy.
- iii- Cellulose – plant cell walls – structural
- iv- Chitin – fungal cell walls and exoskeletons of arthropods - structural
List the functions of lipids.
- a- Long-term energy.
- b- Protection.
- c- Water-proofing.
- d- Insulation.
- e- Others related to steroids (sex regulation, metabolic regulation, etc.).
What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated lipid?
c- state of matter
- i- Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond between carbons; whereas saturated fats have no double bonds between carbons.
- ii- Unsaturated fats – plants – liquid
- iii- Saturated fats – animals - solid
What is a phospholipid?
A lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule.
A phosphate replaces one of the fatty acids.
What is a phospholipid structure and why is it important?
It has a polar head and nonpolar tails, it is important because it makes up the phospholipid bilayer of cell membranes.
List the functions of proteins.
- a- Control all biological processes (enzymes)
- b- Fight infection (immune molecules)
- c- Raw materials for building and repair of body tissues.
- d- Structural:
- i- Cells (cytoskeletons, cilia, flagella, etc.)
- ii- Hair, nails, feathers, scales, horns, antlers, turtle shells, claws, etc.
What is an enzyme and why is it so important?
Specialized proteins that act as a catalyst in organisms.
How many levels of protein structure are there?
- There are four levels:
- a- Primary structure – amino acid sequence
- b- Secondary structure – twisting and folding of neighboring amino acids, stabilized by hydrogen bonds.
- c- Tertiary structure – 3D shape of polypeptide chain
- d- Quaterny structure – arrangement of two or more polypeptide chains
What are the two nucleic acids?
What are the three structural; differences between nucleic acids?
- double stranded
- sugar = deoxyribose
- AT, CG
- single stranded
- sugar = ribose
- AU, CG
Organisms can't get energy directly from food; instead it must be converted to the energy carrier of the cell, ______, before it can be used.
Contents of a cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane that contains the organelles.
The aqueous component of the cytoplasm of a cell, within which various organelles and particles are suspended.
Molecule that forms the bilayer of the cell’s membranes; has a polar, hydrophilic head bonded to two nonpolar, hydrophobic tails.
Moves substances into the cell via vesicle formation.
Moves exported proteins or waste products out of the cell via vesicles.
The ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and ameboid protozoans.
The ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.
Refers to the concentration of solute particles outside the cell as compared to inside the cell.
Give structure and function of: outer portion of the nucleus (nuclear envelope)
- S: double membrane with pores
- F: protection and to allow materials in and out.
Give structure and function of: inside the nucleus (chromtin)
- S: DNA and proteins
- F: Carry genetic information (traits); control all functions of the cell (code for enzymes/proteins that are needed)
Give structure and function of: RER
- S: highly folded membrane; embedded with ribosome
- f: to make proteins; package/sort/store the products they make
Give structure and function of: ribosome
- S: small pieces of RNA and protein
- F: to make proteins
Give the structure and function of: SER
- S: highly folded membrane
- F: to make lipids and steroid hormones; package/sort/store the products they make
Give structure and function of: Golgi Complex
- S: stack of flattened membrane sacks
- F: modify/finalize proteins, etc. that have been produced; repackage them and send them where they need to go
Give structure and function of: vesicle
- S: membrane sack
- F: transport materials around in the cell
Give structure and function of: vacuole
- S: membrane sack
- F: storage of various materials
Give structure and function of: mitochondria
- S: outer membrane in the shape of a kidney bean
- F: convert food energy to cell energy (glucose to ATP)
Give structure and function of: lysosome
- S: membrane sack filled with hydrolytic enzymes
- F: digestion of food particles; recycle damaged and worn-out cell parts
Give structure and function of: cytoskeleton
- S: microtubules (tiny tubes of protein)
- F: cell shape and support; moving things in a cell; moving the cell; cell division
State the three parts of the Cell Theory.
- a- All living things are composed of cells.
- b- Cells are the building blocks of life (smallest unit).
- c- Cell only come from other cell through cell division.
List and describe the three types of
microscopes used in biology.
- a- Compound microscope – A basic microscope composed of two lenses which focus a magnified image of the subject on the retina of the observer’s eye.
- b- Transmission electron microscope – A form of electron microscope in which an image is derived from electrons that have passed through the specimen, in particular one in which the whole image is formed at once rather than by scanning.
- c- Scanning electron microscope - An electron microscope in which the surface of a specimen is scanned by a beam of electrons that are reflected to form an image.
List , define and give examples of the 2 cell types.
- a- Prokaryotic cells – a cell without a nucleus or other membrane covered organelles – bacteria.
- b- Eukaryote cells – cells with a nucleus and other membrane covered organelles – single and multicellular organisms; plants, animals, and fungai
Explain why cells are so small (limited in size)?
Increased surface to volume ratio.
What is the difference between cilia and flagella.
- a- Cilia – shorter whip-like structures that move fluid past the cell.
- b- Flagella – long whip-like structures that propel cells through the environment.
What human cells have cilia and flagella?
a- Cilia – line the fallopian tubes, line respiratory tract
b- Flagella- sperm
What are the three structural differences
between plant and animal cells?
- a- Have cell wall made of cellulose (fiber)
- b- Central vacuole large, filled with water, maintains cell pressure (turgor)
- c- Chloroplasts produce energy through photosynthesis
Give the structure and function of the
- Double layer of phospholipids embedded with proteins – protection, doorway, communication (separates the cell
- from the external fluid)
Explain the difference between passive and active transport.
- a- Passive transport – requires no energy from the cell
- b- Active transport – requires energy from the cell
List, define, and give examples of the three passive transport methods.
- a- Diffusion – movement of a substance toward an area of lower concentration – oxygen diffuses across the plasma membrane, and the net movement is toward the inside of the cell.
- b- Facilitated diffusion – diffusion with the assistance of a transport protein – glucose moves into the cell by facilitated transport, the end result will be an equal distribution of glucose on both sides of the membrane.
- c- Osmosis – diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane –
List and define the two active transport methods.
- a- Endocytosis – moves substances into the cell via vesicle formation.
- b- Exocytosis – moves exported proteins or waste products out of the cell via vesicles.
Why is cell communication so important?
It is essential to maintain stability and organization in the body.
What type of information is communicated between cells?
Signals include information about timing of cell divisions, health of adjacent cells, and status of the external environment.
What are the two methods of cell communication?
- a- Chemical messengers
- b- Physical contact
1. What is the difference between
circulating hormones and local hormones?
- a- Circulating hormones – released into the blood potentially reaching every cell in the body; carries information to distant cells that will alter their functioning.
- b- Local hormones – affect only cells in the vicinity; mostly used when quick responses are required.
Describe gap junctions.
Allows cell signals via direct cytoplasmic connections to neighboring cells. (nerve and muscle cells)
What are the three types of tonicity?
- a- Isotonic
- b- Hypotonic
- c- Hypertonic
What will happen to the cell in each type
of solution and why?
- a- Isotonic solution – no net movement.
- b- Hypotonic solution – cell gains water (swells).
- c- Hypertonic solution – cell loses water (shrinks).
State where tissues fall in the overall organization of living things.
Cells - tissues - organs - organ systems - you.
Specialized cells of the same type that perform a common function.
List and give overall function of the 4 tissue types.
- Epithelial - covers surfaces and lines body cavaties.
- Connective - binds and supports all body parts.
- Muscular - moves the body and its parts.
- Nervous - receives stimuli (information from the environment) and conducts nerve pulses.
Epithelial tissue general structure.
- squamous (flattened), cuboidal (cube-like), or
- columnar (column shaped cells
Epithelial tissue general function.
- usually protective (can be modified for
- secretion, absorption, excretion, and filtration)
Epithelial tissue general location.
- covers the body, lines all cavities and
- composes glands.
3 shapes of epithelial cells
squamous, cuboidal, and columnar
Give the structure and function of each of the 4 major epithelial tissue types
1) Simple squamous – S: one layer of cells; F: are thin for efficient diffusion, filtration
2) Cuboidal or columnar cell tissue – S: are thicker; F:usually function in secretion and absorption
- 3) Simple epithelium – S: one layer of cells; F: usually functions as a diffusion, filtration, secretion or
- absorption membrane
4) Stratified epithelium – S: have many layers of cells; F: protection
Describe the difference between endocrine and exocrine gland
endocrine, secrete hormones directly into the surrounding extracellular fluid. Exocrine, secrete into ducts
Give examples of each endocrine and exocrine gland type
- Endocrine, adrenal, thyroid, pituitary glands.
- Exocrine, salivary, sweat glands.
Connecctive tissue general structure
widely scattered cells that secrete and extracellular matrix.
Connective tissue general function
connects the structures of the body
most common in the body
Connective tissue define matrix and its contents
matrix – unstructured semifluid substance that fills the space between cells in connective tissues or inside organelles. Contains semi-fluid, protein fibers.
Connective tissue 2 types of protein fibers found in the matrix and their function
- collagen – for strength
- elastin – for flexibility, stretch, and recoil
Give structure, function and examples of loose connective tissue
- S:spread out fibers (collagen and elastin),
- F: allows expansion,
- Ex: lungs, arteries, bladder
Give structure, function and examples of dense connective tissue
- S:mostly densely packed collagen fibers,
- F: movement,
- Ex: tendons, ligaments
Give structure, function and examples of elastic connective tissue
- S: some collagen, lots of elastic fibers,
- F: ,
- Ex: walls of blood vessels
Give structure, function and examples of cartilage
- S: made of special cells call chondrocytes, secrete a gel-like matrix that eventually surrounds and imprisons them, segregating them from direct contact with one another and nutrient supplies,
- F: supportive,
- Ex: knee, elbow
describe the 3 cartilage types in terms of general structure and location in the body
- Hyaline cartilage – covers ends of bones, nose;
- elastic cartilage – ears;
- fibrocartilage – cushions knee and disks between vertebrae
Give structure, function and examples blood
S: composed of specialized cells and cell parts carried in the fluid matrix (plasma); F: transport nutrients, gases, hormones, waste;
Give structure, function and examples lymph
- S: WBCs and the fluid matrix;
- F: collects and filters excess tissue fluid and dissolved solutes;
- Ex: lymph nodes
Give structure, function and examples bone
- S: made of special cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts;
- F: supportive
Give the structure, function and examples of adipose tissue
- S: made of adipose cells that do not have an extensive matrix;
- F: lipid storage;
- Ex: insulation, waterproofing
Give the structure of muscle tissue
consists of cells called muscle fibers (actin and myosin)
Give the function of muscle tissue
provides movement and heat
describe the 3 muscle types in terms of general structure, location and function
Skeletal – S: highly organized, with muscle cells lying parallel to each other (striated); F: moves limbs and stabilizes our trunk; L: pectorals, biceps
Smooth – S: short cells with tapered ends, not striated; F: used to move substances within the body; L: digestive tract, bladder
Cardiac – S: has short, branched, striated cells and gap junctions; F: maintain heart beat; L: heart
Give the structure of nervous tissue
- made of 2 cell types; neurons and
Give the function of nervous tissue
responds to the environment by detecting, processing, and coordinating information
In nervous tissue, what are the parts of a neuron
cell body, dendrite, and axon
In nervous tissue, what is the function of neuroglia
- "glue" that provides electrical insulation, provide nutrient
- flow and physical support to neurons
List the main parts of the CV system.
Heart and blood vessels
Give the main function of the CV system and its associated functions.
Brings nutrients and O2 to cells and removes CO2 and wastes from them via blood
List the systems that help the CV system and tell what they do.
- a. The respiratory system assists by oxygenating blood in the lungs
- b. Circulatory system flows blood through the kidneys and liver to be filtered
- c. Lymphatic vessels help this system by
- collecting excess fluid surrounding tissues and return it to the CV system
Describe the 3 layers that all blood vessels have.
- a. Inner layer – endothelium;
- b. middle layer – smooth muscle and elastic tissue;
- c. outer layer – connective tissue
List the 5 types of blood vessels and describe blood flow between them.
- a. Arteries – carry blood away from heart
- b. Arterioles – carry blood from arteries to capillaries
- c. Capillaries – exchange waste and nutrients
- d. Veins – carry blood against gravity back to the heart
- e. Venules – carry blood from the capillaries to veins
Describe capillary beds and be able to describe how they work
Where exchange with body cells occurs, primarily a result of osmotic and blood pressure. Blood enters waste is taken out; nutrients put into cell.
What are the main differences between an artery and a vein?
Artery carries blood from the heart; veins carry blood to the heart
Give the basic structure, function, and location of pericardium
sac surrounding the heart
Give the basic structure, function, and location of myocardium
cardiac tissue that makes up the heart
Give the basic structure, function, and location of Septum
thick wall dividing two sides of the heart
Give the basic structure, function, and location of Left atria
receives blood from the lungs
Give the basic structure, function, and location of right atria
receives blood from the body
Give the basic structure, function, and location of Left ventricle
pushes blood throughout the body
Give the basic structure, function, and location of right ventricle
pushes blood only to the lungs
Give the basic structure, function, and location of semilunar valves
between ventricles and arteries to prevent blood flow in the wrong direction
Give the basic structure, function, and location of atrioventricular valves
between atria and ventricle
list blood flow beginning with the blood returning from the body to the heart.
Blood returns from the body in large veins to the heart’s right atrium. Blood leaves the right atrium enters the right ventricle. Blood leaves the right ventricle enters 2 pulmonary arteries to get oxygenated by lungs. Blood leaves the lungs enters pulmonary veins back to the left atrium. Blood leaves the left atrium enters the left ventricle. Blood leaves the left ventricle to the rest of the body.
List and define the 2 blood pathways related to the heart.
Pulmonary circuit – exchanges CO2 in the blood for oxygen from the environment.
- Systemic circuit – brings the oxygen (and nutrients) to the tissues, then removes CO2
- from them.
List and describe the 2 additional blood pathways not moving through the heart.
Coronary circulation – small coronary arteries that supply the heart that are separate from the systemic and pulmonary pathways.
Hepatic portal system – system that brings blood from the digestive tract rich in amino acids and glucose to the liver.
Describe the cardiac cycle: systole and diastole
Systole – the atria contract together followed by the ventricles contracting together (“lubb”)
Diastole - a rest phase, when chambers relax (“dupp”)
Describe how the heartbeat is controlled: internal and external
Internal – impulses that travel between gap junctions at intercalated disks
External – cardiac center in the brain and hormones
Describe what a blood pressure reading is.
1. Measurement of the highest and lowest blood pressure; pressure against a blood vessel wall usually measured in an artery in the arm.
What is considered normal BP?
most common cause of death in the westernworld; the risk factors can be genetic or environmental
high blood pressure results when blood moves through vessels at a rate higher thannormal often due to arterial plaque; 140/90 mmHg is considered hypertension
a build-up of plaque in blood vessels
occurs when a cranial artery is blocked or bursts; part of the brain dies due to lackof oxygen
Heart attack – (myocardial infarction)
part of the heart dies due to lackof oxygen
Congestive heart failure
is due to a weak heart with age, many hearts weaken and failto push enough blood through the circulatory system
occurs when a vessel wall balloons under pressure, forming a weak spot that can beburst by the increased blood pressure generated by each heartbeat
chest pain or discomfort that occurs if an area of the heart muscle doesn’t getenough oxygen-rich blood
distensions of thevenous walls