HScience

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faulkner116
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168788
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HScience
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2012-09-03 21:39:55
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Health study
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  1. Anatomy
    The study of the structure of the human body.  Anatomy = "cutting backwards", putting things together from slices.
  2. Physiology
    The study of the function of the human body.
  3. Homeostasis
    The condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body's internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes.
  4. Structure and Function
    Structure and function are complementary to each other.

    Structure determines functional possibilities.

    Structure designs the specific function.

    Function influences the size, shape, action, and reaction of the structure.
  5. Embryology
    The first 8 wks of development
  6. Developmental Biology
    All stages of development.
  7. Cell Biology
    Cell structure and function.
  8. Histology
    Microscopic structure of tissues.
  9. Surface Anatomy
    Surface markings of the body.
  10. Gross Anatomy
    Structures viewed without a microscope
  11. Systemic Anatomy
    Structure of specific systems.
  12. Regional Anatomy
    Specific regions of the body.
  13. Radiographic Anatomy
    Body structures visualized with X-ray, CT, or MRI.
  14. Pathological Anatomy
    Strucural changes with disease.
  15. Neurophysiology
    Functional properties of nerve cells.
  16. Endocrinology
    Hormones and how they control body functions.
  17. Cardiovascular Physiology
    Function of the heart and blood vessels.
  18. Immunology
    How the body defends itself against disease-causing agents.
  19. Respiratory Physiology
    Functions of the air passafeways and lungs.
  20. Renal Physiology
    Functions of the kidneys.
  21. Exercise Physiology
    Changes in cell and organ functions as a result of muscular activity.
  22. Pathophysiology
    Functional changes associated with disease and aging.
  23. Levels of Organization (smallest to largest)
    • Chemical- atonomic, molecular
    • Cellular
    • Tissue
    • Organ
    • System
    • Organism
  24. All living things are made up of
    Cells
  25. There are many different types of cells, but they all have three things in common
    1. they are bound by a fatty layer called the Plasma Membrane.

    2. the lipid bilayer holds a complex chemical soup called the cytoplasm, where essential cell functions are carried out.

    3. they have a control center or information repository called a nucleus where instructions encoded in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are stored and manipulated.

    3
  26. __________ gather together in groups for the third level of organization, the tissue.
    Cells
  27. Tissue
    is made up of cells of a certain type.  For example, connective tissue holds the structure of the body; nervous tissue collects, uses, and sends out information.
  28. An Organ
    is a collection of tissues which performs a function needed for the human body to survive.  For example, the kidney is an organ which filters and detoxifies the blood to make urine.
  29. System
    is a group of organs which carry out a more complete set of functions. After being created by the kidney, urine moves through a pair of pipes called the ureters and is stored by the urinary bladder until it is expelled for the body through another pipe called the urethra. Together, the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra make up the urinary system.
  30. ____ body sytems work together to form the Organism.
    11
  31. Organism
    the human body.
  32. Atoms
    • Hydrogen       Carbon    Nitrogen     Oxygen     Sodium
    • Magnesium    Phosphorus  Sulfur   Chlorine    Potassium Calcium         Iron           Iodine
  33. Molecules
    • Carbohydrates       Lipids(fats)    Proteins    Nucleic Acids
    • Vitamins              Neurotransmitters    Signaling molecules
  34. Cells
    • Plasma Membrane   
    • Cytoplasm
    • Nucleus
  35. Tissues
    • Epithelial tissue
    • Connective tissue
    • Muscular tissue
    • Nervous tissue
  36. Organs
    • Brain   Thyroid gland   Heart    Lungs   Stomach    Liver
    • Small intestine      Large intestine   Kidneys
    • Urinary bladder   Ovaries   Uterine tubes   Uterus   Testes
  37. Organ Systems
    • Integumentary (skin)                   Respiratory
    • Skeletal                                        Digestive
    • Muscular                                      Urinary
    • Nervous                                        Reproductive
    • Endocrine
    • Lymphatic & Immune
    • Cardiovascular
  38. Integumentary System (skin)
    Protects the body: helps regulate body temperature; eliminates some wastes; helps make vitamin D; and detects sensations such as touch.
  39. Skeletal System
    Supports and protects the body; provides a surface area for muscle attachments; aids body movements; houses cells that produce blood.
  40. Muscular
    Produces body movements, such as walking; stabalizes body position.
  41. Nervous System
    Generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities; detects changes inthe body's internal and external environments, interprets the changes, and responds by causing.
  42. Endocrine
    Regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers transported inb blood from an endocrine gland or tissue to.
  43. Cardiovascular
    Heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells and helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water contentof body fluids; blood components help defend against disease and repair.
  44. Lymphatic & Immune System
    Returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; includes structures where lymphocytes that protect.
  45. Respiratory System
    Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids.
  46. Digestive System
    Achieves Physical and chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutients; eliminates solid wastes.
  47. Urinary
    Produces, stores, and eliminates urine; eliminates wases and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids; maintains body;s mineral.
  48. Reproductive System
    Gonads produce gamets (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism; gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store.
  49. Systems of the Body
    may appear to be separate and distinct in their functions, but the maintenance of normal body function requires the integration of many system.  Body temperature: integumentary, muscular, cardiovascular, and nervous.
  50. Disease
    Small changes in the balance of each of the levels, at any level, can cause major problems in the organism.

    Example: your blood is normally almost 100% saturated with oxygen.  If your blood is only 80% saturated with oxygen, you feel quite ill and may die.
  51. Human Anatomical Position
    The subject stands erect facing the observer with the head level, the eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor, feet directed forwar, and the arms at their sides with the palms facing forward.
  52. Head
    Cephalic
  53. Skull
    Cranial
  54. Base of skull
    Occipital
  55. Face
    Facial
  56. Forehead
    Frontal
  57. Temple
    Temporal
  58. Eye
    Orbital, Ocular
  59. Cheek
    Buccal
  60. Nose
    Nasal
  61. Mouth
    Oral
  62. Chin
    Mental
  63. Neck
    Cervical
  64. Spinal Column
    Vertebral
  65. Chest
    Thoracic
  66. Breastbone
    Sternal
  67. Breast
    Mammary
  68. Shoulder blade
    Scapular
  69. Back
    Dorsal
  70. Abdomen
    Abdominal
  71. Naval
    Umbilical
  72. Hip
    Coxal
  73. Loin
    Lumbar
  74. Between hips
    Sacral
  75. Pelvis
    Pelvic
  76. Groin
    Inguinal
  77. Pubis
    Pubic
  78. Buttock
    Gluteal
  79. Armpit
    Axillary
  80. Arm
    Brachial
  81. Front of elbow
    Antecubital
  82. Back of elbow
    olecranal, cubital
  83. Forearm
    Antebrachial
  84. Wrist
    Carpal
  85. Hand
    Manual
  86. Thumb
    Pollux
  87. Palm
    Palmar, volar
  88. Back of hand
    Dorsum
  89. Fingers
    digital, phalangeal
  90. Thigh
    Femoral
  91. Knee
    Anterior surface
    Patellar
  92. Knee
    Posterior surface
    Popliteal
  93. Leg
    Crural
  94. Calf
    Sural
  95. Foot
    Pedal
  96. Ankle
    Tarsal
  97. Sole
    Plantar
  98. Top of foot
    Dorsum
  99. Heel
    Calcaneal
  100. Toes
    digital, phalangeal
  101. Great toe
    Hallux

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