The study of the structure of the human body. Anatomy = "cutting backwards", putting things together from slices.
The study of the function of the human body.
The condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body's internal environment due to the constant interaction of the body's many regulatory processes.
Structure and Function
Structure and function are complementary to each other.
Structure determines functional possibilities.
Structure designs the specific function.
Function influences the size, shape, action, and reaction of the structure.
The first 8 wks of development
All stages of development.
Cell structure and function.
Microscopic structure of tissues.
Surface markings of the body.
Structures viewed without a microscope
Structure of specific systems.
Specific regions of the body.
Body structures visualized with X-ray, CT, or MRI.
Strucural changes with disease.
Functional properties of nerve cells.
Hormones and how they control body functions.
Function of the heart and blood vessels.
How the body defends itself against disease-causing agents.
Functions of the air passafeways and lungs.
Functions of the kidneys.
Changes in cell and organ functions as a result of muscular activity.
Functional changes associated with disease and aging.
Levels of Organization (smallest to largest)
Chemical- atonomic, molecular
All living things are made up of
There are many different types of cells, but they all have three things in common
1. they are bound by a fatty layer called the Plasma Membrane.
2. the lipid bilayer holds a complex chemical soup called the cytoplasm, where essential cell functions are carried out.
3. they have a control center or information repository called a nucleus where instructions encoded in nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) are stored and manipulated.
__________ gather together in groups for the third level of organization, the tissue.
is made up of cells of a certain type. For example, connective tissue holds the structure of the body; nervous tissue collects, uses, and sends out information.
is a collection of tissues which performs a function needed for the human body to survive. For example, the kidney is an organ which filters and detoxifies the blood to make urine.
is a group of organs which carry out a more complete set of functions. After being created by the kidney, urine moves through a pair of pipes called the ureters and is stored by the urinary bladder until it is expelled for the body through another pipe called the urethra. Together, the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra make up the urinary system.
____ body sytems work together to form the Organism.
the human body.
Hydrogen Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Sodium
Magnesium Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Potassium Calcium Iron Iodine
Protects the body: helps regulate body temperature; eliminates some wastes; helps make vitamin D; and detects sensations such as touch.
Supports and protects the body; provides a surface area for muscle attachments; aids body movements; houses cells that produce blood.
Produces body movements, such as walking; stabalizes body position.
Generates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activities; detects changes inthe body's internal and external environments, interprets the changes, and responds by causing.
Regulates body activities by releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers transported inb blood from an endocrine gland or tissue to.
Heart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide and wastes away from cells and helps regulate acid-base balance, temperature, and water contentof body fluids; blood components help defend against disease and repair.
Lymphatic & Immune System
Returns proteins and fluid to blood; carries lipids from gastrointestinal tract to blood; includes structures where lymphocytes that protect.
Transfers oxygen from inhaled air to blood and carbon dioxide from blood to exhaled air; helps regulate acid-base balance of body fluids.
Achieves Physical and chemical breakdown of food; absorbs nutients; eliminates solid wastes.
Produces, stores, and eliminates urine; eliminates wases and regulates volume and chemical composition of blood; helps maintain the acid-base balance of body fluids; maintains body;s mineral.
Gonads produce gamets (sperm or oocytes) that unite to form a new organism; gonads also release hormones that regulate reproduction and other body processes; associated organs transport and store.
Systems of the Body
may appear to be separate and distinct in their functions, but the maintenance of normal body function requires the integration of many system. Body temperature: integumentary, muscular, cardiovascular, and nervous.
Small changes in the balance of each of the levels, at any level, can cause major problems in the organism.
Example: your blood is normally almost 100% saturated with oxygen. If your blood is only 80% saturated with oxygen, you feel quite ill and may die.
Human Anatomical Position
The subject stands erect facing the observer with the head level, the eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor, feet directed forwar, and the arms at their sides with the palms facing forward.