intro to science psych

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intro to science psych
2012-09-24 17:02:39
psych research

day one
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  1. what is science?
    investigation of natural phenomena through observaiton, theoretical explanation, and experimentation
  2. what are the five approaches to knowledge?
    • -tenacity
    • -intuition
    • -authority
    • -rationalism
    • -empiricism
    • -science
  3. Approaches to knowledge- Tenacity?
    accepting ideas as valid because they have been accepted for so long or repeated so often they seem true
  4. Approaches to knowledge- Intuition
    accept ideas as true because they "feel" true
  5. Approaches to knowledge- Authority
    accepting ideas as valid because an authority asserts it as true
  6. Approaches to knowledge- Rationalism
    developing ideas using existing ideas and logic
  7. Approaches to knowledge- Empiricism
    gaining knowledge through observation
  8. Approaches to knowledge- Science
    combines methods of rationalism and empiricism
  9. 4 science values
    • -accuracy
    • -objectivity
    • -skepticism
    • -open-mindedness
  10. (science values) accuracy
    accurate information
  11. (science values) Objectivity
    • -free from biased
    • *not let biases from getting in the way when collecting data
  12. (science values) Skepticism
    multiple attempts to verify its claim
  13. (science values) open-mindness
    • -ability to adapt.
    • -open to changing mind
  14. 5 Logical structure of scientific method
    • -Laws
    • -Theory
    • -Hypothesis
    • -Experimentation
    • -Observations
  15. (components of scientific method) laws

    -can be tested eveyrtime and come out the same result everytime
  16. (components of scientific method) theory
    -system of ideas that explain complex phenomena
  17. (components of scientific method) hypothesis
    educated guess
  18. (components of scientific method) Experimentation
    test hypothesis or set
  19. (components of scientific method) Observations
    real subjects behave, no interference
  20. 5 verifiability of claims
    • -public process
    • -repeatability
    • -operational definition
    • -falsification
    • -parsimony
  21. (5 verifiability of claims) Public process
    • -research is out in open. 
    • *how it was done and how can it be repeated
  22. (5 verifiability of claims) Repeatability
    the research has to be able to be repeated by someone that reads the research paper
  23. (5 verifiability of claims) operational definition
    • ex) want to test a study on aggressivity.
    • how do we go about to bring that behaviro out to measure
  24. (5 verifiability of claims) Falsification
    • tested in a way to come out false.
    • * trying to prove your research false
  25. (5 verifiability of claims) Parsimony
    the simpler the better
  26. Peer review
    • merit of scientific research judeged by other scientists
    • *will receive the highest scrutiny
  27. can we study something that exists in mental world?
    • yes through 3 mechanisms
    • *overt behavior
    • *questionnaire responses
    • *physiological responses

    we must be able to tie these behaviors to mental events
  28. (best mechanism for studying something that exists in mental world) Overt behavior
    how hard someone punches bag
  29. (best mechanism for studying something that exists in mental world) Questionnaire responses
    • scale questionairre
    • *why choose 5 and not 8 on scale from 0-10
  30. (best mechanism for studying something that exists in mental world) Physiological responses
    ex) why do certin parts of brain lit up when perfomring a certian activitiy
  31. what 3 basic principles pf scientifc method does pscyhology adheres to?
    • -observable events
    • -adherence to scientific values
    • -reliance on careful observation and analysis