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what is science?
investigation of natural phenomena through observaiton, theoretical explanation, and experimentation
what are the five approaches to knowledge?
Approaches to knowledge- Tenacity?
accepting ideas as valid because they have been accepted for so long or repeated so often they seem true
Approaches to knowledge- Intuition
accept ideas as true because they "feel" true
Approaches to knowledge- Authority
accepting ideas as valid because an authority asserts it as true
Approaches to knowledge- Rationalism
developing ideas using existing ideas and logic
Approaches to knowledge- Empiricism
gaining knowledge through observation
Approaches to knowledge- Science
combines methods of rationalism and empiricism
4 science values
(science values) accuracy
(science values) Objectivity
- -free from biased
- *not let biases from getting in the way when collecting data
(science values) Skepticism
multiple attempts to verify its claim
(science values) open-mindness
- -ability to adapt.
- -open to changing mind
5 Logical structure of scientific method
(components of scientific method) laws
-can be tested eveyrtime and come out the same result everytime
(components of scientific method) theory
-system of ideas that explain complex phenomena
(components of scientific method) hypothesis
(components of scientific method) Experimentation
test hypothesis or set
(components of scientific method) Observations
real subjects behave, no interference
5 verifiability of claims
- -public process
- -operational definition
(5 verifiability of claims) Public process
- -research is out in open.
- *how it was done and how can it be repeated
(5 verifiability of claims) Repeatability
the research has to be able to be repeated by someone that reads the research paper
(5 verifiability of claims) operational definition
- ex) want to test a study on aggressivity.
- how do we go about to bring that behaviro out to measure
(5 verifiability of claims) Falsification
- tested in a way to come out false.
- * trying to prove your research false
(5 verifiability of claims) Parsimony
the simpler the better
- merit of scientific research judeged by other scientists
- *will receive the highest scrutiny
can we study something that exists in mental world?
- yes through 3 mechanisms
- *overt behavior
- *questionnaire responses
- *physiological responses
-we must be able to tie these behaviors to mental events
(best mechanism for studying something that exists in mental world) Overt behavior
how hard someone punches bag
(best mechanism for studying something that exists in mental world) Questionnaire responses
- scale questionairre
- *why choose 5 and not 8 on scale from 0-10
(best mechanism for studying something that exists in mental world) Physiological responses
ex) why do certin parts of brain lit up when perfomring a certian activitiy
what 3 basic principles pf scientifc method does pscyhology adheres to?
- -observable events
- -adherence to scientific values
- -reliance on careful observation and analysis