BIO 137 - Chapter 3

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BIO 137 - Chapter 3
2012-09-04 05:52:16
Biology Cellular Level Organization

Flash card information for first BIO 137 test
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  1. The basic unit of all living things
  2. These are simple cells that are "pro" (before) "karyon" (nucleus).  Most are unicellular bacteria.
    Prokaryotic cells
  3. These are complex cells with a nucleus and subcellular structures (organelles).  All fungi, plants, and animals are constructed from "these".
    Eukaryotic cells
  4. All eukaryotic cells are composed of 3 main parts, name them.
    • Plasma Membrane
    • Cytoplasm
    • Nucleus
  5. Another name of "plasmalemma".
    Plasma Membrane
  6. A gelatin-like substance, plus structural fibers and organelles  (but NOT the nucleus).
  7. This contains the genetic library of the cell.
  8. This forms the cells outer boundary and seperates the cell's internal environment from the outside environment.  It is a selectively permeable barrier, allowing the passage of some things and not others.  It plays a role in cellular communication.
    Plasma Membrane
  9. This contains all of the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus.
  10. This is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm, consisting mostly of water.
  11. These are subcellular structures embedded in the cytosol, having characteristic shapes and specific functions.
  12. This is a large organelle that contains DNA in molecules called chromosomes.
  13. Each ________ consists of a single molecule of DNA and associated packaging proteins.  It contains thousands of heriditary units called genes.
  14. This is  much more than a "fence", it is a flexible, yet sturdy "intelligent", semi-permeable regulator that covers and protects the cell, it controls what goes in and comes out, links to other cells, and flies certain flags to tell other cells "who" it is.
    Plasma membrane
  15. The ______ _______ _______ describes the arrangement of molecules within the plasma membrane. 
    Fluid Mosaic Model
  16. In the plasma membrane, these act as a barrier to certain polar substances.
  17. In the plasma membrane, these act as "gate keepers", allowing passage of specific molecules and ions.
  18. The plasma membrane responds to changes in internal and external conditions, and has 5 basic functions.  Name them.
    • Transport
    • Communication
    • Enzymatic reactions
    • Cell identification
    • Formation of cell junctions
  19. The primary structures of the plasma membrane are "what" 2 things ?
    Phospholipids and Integral proteins
  20. These form a lipid-bilayer in the plasma membrane - cholesterol and glyco-lipids (sugar lipids) also contribute.
  21. These extend into or through the bilayer of the plasma membrane.
    Integral proteins
  22. What are the 2 types of integral proteins ?
    Transmembrane and Peripheral
  23. These proteins make up most of the integral proteins in the plasma membrane and span the entire lipid bilayer.
    Transmembrane proteins
  24. These proteins in the plasma membrane attach to the inner or outer surface, but DO NOT extend through the membrane.
    Peripheral proteins
  25. _________ are membrane proteins with a carbohydrate group attached that protrude into the extracellular fluid.
  26. The ________ is the entire "sugary coating" surrounding the plasma membrane (made up of the carbohydrate portions of the glycolipids and glycoproteins).
  27. Some integral proteins in the plasma membrane are also _______ channels.
  28. ___________ selectively move substances through the plasma membrane.
  29. These are used for cellular recognition in the plasma membrane.
  30. A _________ is a molecule that binds with a receptor in the plasma membrane.
  31. These catalyze chemical reactions.
  32. What are 6 types of plasma membrane proteins ?
    • Ion channels (integral)
    • Carriers (integral)
    • Receptors (integral)
    • Enzymes (integral and peripheral)
    • Linkers (integral and peripheral)
    • Cell identity markers (glycoprotein)
  33. These allow specific ions to move through water filled pores in the plasma membrane.
    Ion channels
  34. These carry specific substances across the plasma membrane by changing shape.  For example, aminoacids, needed to synthesize new proteins, enter body cells by way of "these"...they are also called "transporters".
  35. These recognize specific ligand and alters cell's function in some way.  For example, antidiuretic hormones bind to receptors in the kidneys and changes the water permeability of certain plasma membranes.
  36. These catalyze reactions inside or outside the cell (depending on which direction the active site faces).  For example, lactace protruding through epithelial cells lining your small intestines splits the disaccharide lactose in the milk you drink. 
  37. These are anchor filaments inside and outside the plasma membrane.  They provide structural stability and shape for the cell.  They may also participate in movement of the cell or link two cells together.
  38. These distinguish your cells from anyone elses (unless you are an identical twin).  An important class of these markers are the major histocompatibility proteins.  (MHC)
    Cell-identity markers
  39. Because of the distribution of lipids and proteins embedded in it, the plasma membrane allows some substances across, but not others.  This is called _______ ________.
    Selective permeability
  40. What substances can pass "easily", "less easily", or "not at all" through the plasma membrane ?
    • Easily:  Water (which is a special case unto itself)
    •              Gases
    •               Small, fat-soluable molecules
    •               Small, neutrally charged, lipid soluable substances
    • Less Easily:  Charged Ions
    • Not at all:  Large water soluable molecules, such
    •                   as proteins
  41. For substances that are needed by the cell, but for which the plasma membrane is impenetrable (impermeable), _______ proteins act as channels and transporters.  They assist the entrance of certain substances that either can't pass at all (glucose) or for which the cell needs to hasten passage (ions).
  42. Transport processes are either _______ or _______.
    Passive or Active
  43. This type of process involves substances moving across the cell's membranes without the input of any energy - they are said to move "with" or "down" their concentration gradient.
  44. These processes involve the use of energy, primarily from breakdown of ATP, to move a substance against its concentration gradient.
  45. What is another way to write "concentration gradient" ?
    " [gradient]"
  46. List 3 passive processes.
    • Diffusion of solutes
    • Diffusion of water, called "osmosis"
    • Facilitated Diffusion (this requires a specific channel or a
    •                                 carrier molecule, but no energy is used)
  47. In "active processes", what is needed ?
    Various types of transporters are needed, and energy IS used.
  48. _________ is the passive spread of particles through random motion, from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration.  (example given in class was of KoolAid poured into water, but not stirred)
  49. What 5 factors will affect the rate of diffusion ?
    • Amount of substance
    • Diffusion distance
    • Temperature
    • Steepness of the gradient
    • Surface area

    Use this to help you remember: (ADT service SUCKS)
  50. Name 2 passive transport processes.
    • Channel-mediated facilitated diffusion
    • Carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion
  51. Give an example of "Channel-mediated facilitated diffusion".
    The passage of potassium ions through a gated K+ channel.
  52. Give an example of "Carrier-mediated facillitated diffusion".
    The passage of glucose across the cell  membrane.
  53. ____________ is the net movement of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to one of lower water concentration.
  54. Water can pass through the plasma membrane in 2 them.
    • Through the lipid bilayer through simple diffusion
    • or
    • Through aquaporins (integral membrane proteins)
  55. The force generated by the movement of water in a "U" shaped tube from the left to the right side is called
    _______ __________.
    Osmotic pressure
  56. _______ refers to the concentration of salt solutions in the blood and elsewhere. 
  57. What happens to red blood cells in:
    a) an isotonic solution
    b) a hypotonic solution
    c) a hypertonic solution
    • a) it will remain unchanged
    • b) it will begin to swell, a process called "hemolysis"
    • c) it will explode, a process call "crenation"
  58. _________ can be actively transported across the plasma membrane against their concentration gradient (low to high) by using energy (usually in the form of ATP).
  59. This type of "pump" is found in all cells.
    Sodium - Potassium pump
  60. List the 2 secondary active transport mechanisms, and explain their differences.
    Antiporters - carry two substances across the plasma membrane in "opposite" directions

    Symporters - carry two substances across the plasma membrane in the "same" direction
  61. ________ is a small spherical sac formed by budding off from a membrane.
  62. In this "process" materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed from the plasma membrane. 
  63. Name the 3 types of endocytosis.
    • receptor mediated
    • phagocytosis
    • pinocytosis (bulk phase)
  64. In ________ vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents into the extracellular fluid.
  65. ___________ is a combination of both endocytosis and exocytosis.
  66. The transport of chemical across the plasma membrane provides for what functions ?
    The importing of molecules for the maintenance of metabolic processes.
  67. What are the 2 components of cytoplasm ?
    Cytosol and Organelles
  68. ________ is the intracellular fluid, surrounding the organelles.  It is the site of many chemical reactions, and energy is released by these actions.  Reactions provide the building blocks for cell maintenance, structure, function and growth.
  69. _________ are specialized sturctures within the cell.
  70. The __________ is a network of protein filaments throughout the cytosol and provide structural suppport for the cell.
  71. What are the 3 types of cytoskeletons, and describe each type.
    • Microfilaments - looks like two ropes twisted together lengthwise
    • Intermediate filaments - looks like several ropes twisted together lengthwise
    • Microtubule - looks like a piece of a hose that has perfect circles of beads going around it's circumference, side by side, for it's entire length
  72. The _______ is located near the nucleus, and consists of two centrioles and pericentriolar material.
  73. _______ are short, hair-like projections from the cell surface that help move fluids along the cell's surface. (Their movements are "wave-like", waving forwards and backwards.)
  74. __________ are longer than cilia, and can move an entire cell.  The only example is in the sperm cell's tail. (Their movements are like the movements made by swim up and down promote propulsion and movement).
  75. __________ are the sites of protein synthesis.
  76. __________ ________ is a network of membranes in the shape of flattened sacs or tubules, and can be either rough or smooth.
    Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  77. This type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is connected to the nuclear envelope, is a series of flattened sacs, and it's surface is studded with ribosomes.  It produces various types of proteins.
    Rough ER
  78. This type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of membrane tubules and does not have any ribosomes.  It can synthesizes fatty acids or steroids and detoxify certain drugs.
    Smooth ER
  79. The _________ _________ consists of 3 to 20 flattened, membranous sacs called cisternae.  It modifies, sorts, and packages proteins for transport to different destinations by means of various vesicles.
    Golgi complex
  80. ___________ are vesicles that form from the Golgi complex and contain powerful digestive enzymes.
  81. _________ are smaller than lysosomes, are abundant in the liver, and can detoxify several toxic substances such as alcohol.
  82. ___________ continually destroy unneeded, damaged, or faulty proteins.  They are found in cytosol and the nucleus.
  83. These are the "powerhouses of the cell".  They generate ATP, are more prevalent in physiologically active cells such as muscle, liver, and kidneys.  They have inner and outer mitochondrial membranes similar in structure to the plasma membrane.  It contains its own DNA, which is inherited ONLY from your mother. They are self-replicating in times of increased cellular demand or before cell division.
  84. ________ is the series of folds of the inner membrane of mitochondria.
  85. _________ is the large, central, fluid-filled cavity found in mitochondria.
  86. The ________ of a cell is is spherical or oval shaped in structure, and are usually the most prominent feature of the cell.
  87. What are the 5 primary structures found in the nucleus of the cell ?
    • Nuclear envelope
    • Nuclear pores
    • Nucleolus
    • Genes
    • Chromosomes
  88. The __________ __________ is a double membrane that seperates the nucleus from the cytoplasm.
    Nuclear envelope
  89. __________ ________ are numerous openings in the nuclear envelope that control movement of substances between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
    Nuclear pores
  90. These are spherical bodies that produce ribosomes.
  91. These contain the cell's heriditary units and controls the activities and structure of the cell.
  92. These are long molecules of DNA combined with protein molecules.
  93.  ___________ is the process by which genetic information encoded in DNA is copied onto a strand of RNA called messenger RNA (mRNA), which direct protein synthesis.
  94. Besides serving as a template for the synthesis of mRNA, DNA also synthesizes two other kinds of RNA, _______  RNA and ___________ RNA.
    • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
    • and
    • Transfer RNA (tRNA)
  95. Transcription of DNA is catalyzed by what ?
    RNA polymerase
  96. Transcription of the DNA strand ends at a special nucleotide sequence called a ___________.
  97. Not all parts of a gene code for parts of a protein.  Regions within a gene called _______ DO NOT code for parts of proteins, and are located between regions called ______ that DO code for segments of a protein.
    • Introns
    • Exons
  98. _____________ is the process of reading the mRNA nucleotide sequence to determine the amino acid sequence of the protein.
  99. The triplet of nitrogenous bases found in tRNA is called _________.
  100. A _________ is a sement of 3 bases of mRNA.
  101. What is a clinical connection discovered as a result of studying how DNA is coded ?
    As a result of recombinant DNA techniques, genetic engineering has arisen; strains of recombinant bacteria produce important therapeutic substances such as human growth hormone, insulin, and vaccines against several viruses.
  102. Cell division that results in an INCREASE in body cells is called ________ _______ ________.
    Somatic cell division
  103. Somatic cell division involves nuclear division called _______, plus cytokinesis.
  104. ________ _________ is the process by which cells reproduce themselves.   It consists of nuclear division (mitosis and meiosis) and cytoplasmic division (cytokinesis).
    Cell division
  105. Cell division that results in the production of sperm and eggs is called ________ ______ ______.
    Reproductive cell division
  106. Reproductive cell division consists of a nuclear division called ________ plus cytokinesis.
  107. The ______ _______ is an orderly sequence of events by which a cell duplicates its contents and divides in two.  It consists of interphase and the mitotic phase.
    Cell cycle
  108. During _______ the cell carries on every life process except division.
  109. Interphase consists of 3 phases, name them.
    G1, S, and G2
  110. In this step of interphase, the cell is metabolically active, duplicating its organelles and cytosolic components except for DNA.
  111. Cells that remain in G1 phase for a very long time, perhaps destined never to divide again, are said to be in the ______ phase.
    G zero
  112. In the _______ phase of interphase, chromosomes are replicated.
    S phase
  113. In the _________ phase of interphase, cell growth continues and the cell completes its preparation for cell division.
    G2 phase
  114. A cell in interphase shows a distinctive nucleus and the absence of ________.
  115. The mitotic phase consists of what 2 steps ?
    Mitosis (nuclear division) and cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division)
  116. ________ is the distribution of two sets of chromosomes, one set into each of two seperate nuclei.
  117. What are the 4 stages of Mitosis ?
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase

    • Study help:  My dog, Mitosis, simply refuses to use the
    •                     P-MAT.
  118. During ___________ the chromatin condenses and shortens into chromosomes.
  119. During _________ the centromeres line up at the exact center of the mitotic spindle, a region called equatorial plane region.
  120. __________ is characterized by the splitting and seperation of centromeres and the movement of the two sister chromatids of each pair toward opposite poles of the cell.
  121. _______ begins as soon as chromatid movement stops; the identical sets of chromosomes at opposite poles of the cell uncoil and revert to their threadlike chromatin form, microtubules disappear or change form, a new nuclear envelope appears,and the new mitotic spindle eventually break up.
  122. ________ is the division of a parent cell's cytoplasm and organelles.  The process begins in late anaphase or early telophase with the formation of a cleavage furrow, when this process is complete, interphase begins.
  123. What clinical connection has been discovered by studying the different stages of cell division ?
    The discovery that inhibiting the formaton of the mitotic spindle has a role in the treatment of cancer.
  124. What are the 3 possible "cell destinies" ?
    • 1.  To remain alive and functioning without dividing
    • 2.  To grow
    • 3.  To die
  125. The _______ _______ _______ induces cell division.
    Maturation promoting factor (MPF)
  126. Cell death, also known as ________, is triggered either from outside the cell or from inside the cell due to a "cell suicide" gene.
  127. ________ is a pathological cell death due to injury.
  128. What is a clinical connection that has been realized due to the study of cell destiny ?
    The fact that tumor-suppressor genes can produce proteins that normally inhibit cell division resulting in the uncontrollable cell growth known as cancer.
  129. The replication of DNA in Meiosis is similar to Mitosis....TRUE or FALSE ?
  130. Meiosis involves two them.
    • Meiosis I
    • Meiosis II
  131. In Meiosis I, two pairs of sister chromatids pair off to form a _______.
  132. The exchange of a portion of one chromatid with another during meiosis.  It permits an exchange of genes among chromatids and is one factor that results in genetic variation of progeny (offspring).
    Crossing over
  133. The net result of ________ is a haploid cell with one chromatid.
    Meiosis II
  134. The net result of Meiosis is the production of 4 haploid gamete cells that are genetically _________.
  135. The shapes of cells vary considerably.....TRUE or FALSE ?
  136. All cells perform identical functional roles in the body ...... TRUE or FALSE ?
  137. _________ is a normal process accompanied by a progressive alteration of the body's homeostatic adaptive responses.
  138. The specialized branch of medicine that deals with the medical problems and care of elderly persons is called _________.
  139. The physiological signs of aging are gradual deterioration in function and capacity to respond to _________ ______.
    Environmental stresses
  140. These physiological signs are related to the net decrease in the number of cells in the body and to the _________ of the cells that remain.
  141. The __________ components of tissues, such as collagen fibers and elastin, also change with age.
  142. What clinical connection has been realized as a result of studying geriatrics, and the problems related to aging.
    Free radicals:...many theories of aging have been proposed, including genetically programmed cessation of cell division, glucose addition to proteins, free radical reactions, and excessive immune responses, but none successfully answer all experimental objections.  Progeria and Werner Syndrome are disorders of aging.
  143. ________ is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell proliferation where cells divide without control and develop into a tumor or neoplasm.
  144. A cancerous neoplasm is call a ________ tumor or a  ______. 
    • Malignant
    • Malignancy
  145. Malignant tumors have the ability to ___________, spreading cancerous cells to other parts of the body.
  146. List 5 different types of cancers and the parts of the body that they affect.
    • Carcinomas - arise from epithelial cells
    • Melanomas - are cancedrous growths of melanocytes
    • Sarcomas - arise from muscle cells or connective tissues
    • Leukemias - are cancers of blood-forming organs
    • Lymphomas - are cancers of the lymphatic tissues
  147. Cancer cells divide rapidly and continuously and trigger _________ which is the growth of new networks of blood vessels that feed the tumors.
  148. A chemical agent, or radiation that produces cancer is called a ____________, and induce mutations in DNA.
  149. Name 5 things that can result in the formation of cancers.
    • Environmental agents
    • Chemical agents
    • Radiation
    • Viruses
    • Oncogenes
  150. __________ is a multistep process involving mutations of oncogenes and anti-oncogenes; as many as 10 distinct mutations may have to accumulate in a cell before it becomes cancerous.
  151. Treatment of cancer is easy, because it is a single disease and all cells in tumors behave in the same way.....TRUE or FALSE ?
  152. Name 5 ways that medical professionals and scientists are using today, and are developing for future use, to try to battle cancer.
    • Surgical removal (if possible)
    • Chemotherapy
    • Radiation Therapy
    • Virotherapy (the use of viruses to kill cancer cells)
    • Metastasis regulatory genes (scientists hope to use these
    •      to develop therapeutic drugs that can manipulate
    •      these genes, and block metastasis of cancer cells)