BIO Ch 1,2,16 Vocab

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jjoaaslt
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BIO Ch 1,2,16 Vocab
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2012-09-04 23:15:17
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  1. Stromatolite
    a laminated micrbial material, typically built from layers of filamentous bacteria and other microorganisms, which can be fossilized
  2. 16S rRNA
    a large polynucleotide that functions as a part of the small subunit of the ribosome of bacteria and archaea and from whose gene sequence evolutionary info can be obtained
  3. Ribotyping
    a means of identifying microorganisms from analysis of DNA fragments generated from restriction enzyme digestion of the genes encoding their 16S rRNA
  4. Ribosomal Database Project (RDP)
    a large database of small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences that can be retrived electronically and used in comparative rRNA sequence studies
  5. Phylogenetic probe
    an oligonucleotide, sometimes made flourescent by atachment of a dye, complementary in sequence to some sequence in rRNA
  6. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST)
    a taxonomic tool for classifying organisms from gene sequence variations in several housekeeping genes
  7. Monophyletic
    in phylogeny, a group descended from another
  8. Molecular clock
    a DNA sequence, such as the gene for rRNA, that can be used as a comparative temporal measure of evolutionary divergence
  9. GC ration
    in DNA from an organism, the % of the total nucleic acid that consists of guanine and cytosine bases
  10. FISH
    Flourescent In Situ Hybridization

    a staging technique for phylogenetic studies
  11. FAME
    Fatty Acid Methyl Ester

    a technique for identifying microorganisms from their fatty acids
  12. Endosymbiotic Hypothesis
    the idea that a chemoorganotrophic bactrieum and a cyanobacterium were stably incorporated inot another cell type to give rise, respectively, to mitochondria and chloroplast
  13. Ecotype
    a population of genetically identical cells sharing a particular resource within an ecological niche
  14. Binomial system
    Carl Linnaeus (swedish)

    naming living organisms in whic an organism is given a genus name and species epithet
  15. Cladistics
    phylogenetic methods that group organisms by their evolutionary relationships, not by their phenotypic similarities
  16. Banded iron formation
    iron oxide-rich ancient sedimentary rocks containing zones of oxidized iron (Fe^3+) formed by oxidation of Fe^2+ by O_2 produced by cyanobacteria
  17. Endosymbiosis
    -the theory that mitochondria and chloroplast originated from bacteria

    -The engulfment of one cell type by another cell type and the subsequent and stable association of the two cells.
  18. virus
    a genetic element that contains either a DNA or an RNA genome, has an extracellular form (the virion), and depends on a host cell for replication
  19. Protists
    algae and protozoa
  20. Proeobacteria
    a large phylum of bacteria that includes many gram-positive bacteria: Escherichia coli
  21. Plasmid
    an extrachromosomal genetic element nonessential for growth
  22. Phylogeny
    the evolutionary relationships between organisms
  23. Gram stain
    a differential staining technique in which bacterial cells stain either pink (gram-neg.) or purple (gram-pos.) depending on their structural make-up
  24. Cyanobacteria
    prokaryotic oxygenic phototrophs
  25. Chemoorganothroph
    an organism that obtains its energy from the oxidation of organic compounds
  26. Pure culture
    a culture containing a single kind of microorganism
  27. Pathogen
    a disease causing microorganism
  28. Koch's postulates
    a set of criteria for proving that a given microorganism casuses a given disease
  29. Growth
    in microbiology, an increase in cell number with time
  30. Genome
    an organism's full compliment of genes
  31. Enrichment culture technique
    a method for isolation specific microorganisms from nature using specific culture media and incubation conditions
  32. Differentiation
    modification of cellular components to form a new strucure, such as a spore
  33. Chemolithotrophy
    a form of metabolism in which energy in generated from inorganic compounds
  34. Universal phylogenetic tree
    A tree that shows the evolutionary position of representatives of all domains of living organisms.
  35. Genomics
    The discipline that maps, sequences, analyzes, and compares genomes.
  36. Macromolecule
    A large molecule (polymer) formed by the connection of a number of small molecules (monomers); proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and polysaccharides in a cell.
  37. Isomers
    Two molecules that have the same molecular formula but that differ structurally.
  38. Nodule
    A tumorlike structure produced by the roots of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing plants. Contains the nitrogen-fixing microbial component of the symbiosis.
  39. Protozoa
    Unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms that lack cell walls.
  40. DNA–DNA hybridization
    The experimental determination of genomic similarity by measuring the extent of hybridization of DNA from the genome of one organism with that of another.

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