PSYC 320 Lesson 6

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PSYC 320 Lesson 6
2012-09-06 23:07:22
PSYC 320 Lesson

Mastery Check Questions
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  1. Compared to other animals, humans have a very prolonged period of growth. According to the text, an evolutionary implication of this is:
    physical immaturity requires children to spend more time depending on adults, and therefore a longer time is spent learning and acquiring knowledge and skills that are necessary for life in a complex social world
  2. If our society becomes more complex and technological, it is likely that the period of dependency for children will:
    be extended
  3. A growth curve that plots the average height and weight of a sample of children at each age defines the term:
    distance curve
  4. A velocity curve:
    clarifies the timing of growth spurts
  5. What is true of changes in body proportions?
    • - physical growth during infancy and childhood follows the cephalocaudal trend
    • - physical growth during infancy and childhood follows the proximodistal trend
    • - during puberty the growth trends reverse
  6. What is an epiphysis?
    place where bone growth occurs
  7. What is the first function of cartilage?
    to form the embryonic skeleton
  8. Which hormone is responsible for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals?
    growth hormone
  9. Which hormone is responsible for the pubertal growth spurt, the appearance of body hair, and male sex characteristics?
  10. Secular changes in growth is defined as:
    changes in body size and rate of growth from one generation to the next
  11. What is the proper sequence for the rapid development of particular tissues?
    nervous, lymphoidal, genital
  12. ______ is a process in which neural fibers are coated with an insulating fatty sheath that improves the efficiency of message transfer.
  13. ______ is the ability of other parts of the brain to take over functions of damaged regions.
  14. ______ is the gap between neurons, across which chemical messages are sent.
  15. The chief function of glial cells is to:
    aid in myelinization
  16. During the process of lateralization, verbal abilities in most individuals become localized in the:
    left hemisphere
  17. Diets for children that are deficient in protein produce:
  18. Studies in the United States indicate that the greatest nutritional disorder in this country is:
  19. The duration between the onset and termination for the adolescent growth spurt in height and sex organ growth is abaout ______ years.
  20. The average age that a girl reaches the peak of her height spurt is:
    11.7 years
  21. What does the research say about adolescent moodiness?
    • - higher hormone levels are related to greater moodiness
    • - adolescents report lower moods than school-aged children and adults
    • - adolescents' moods are less stable than adults
  22. Girls typically experience the ______ impact of early maturing as boys do.
  23. People with anorexia nervosa...
    have a distorted body image
  24. Premarital sex among young people is:
    decreasing due to sexually transmitted diseases
  25. Characteristics of teenage mothers in the U.S. include:
    • - limited education
    • - adult models of unmarried parenthood
    • - alcohol and drug use
  26. distance curve
    • plots the average sizze of a sample of children at each age
    • - indicates typical yearly progress toward maturity
  27. velocity curve
    • plots the average amount of growth at each yearly interval
    • - reveals the exact timing of growth spurts
  28. skeletal age
    • a measure of development of the bones of the body
    • - best estimate of a child's physical maturity
  29. epiphyses
    • special growth centers in the bones
    • - appear at the extreme ends of each of the body's long bones
  30. gross motor skills at 2-3 yrs
    • - walks rhythmically
    • - runs, jumps, hops, throws
    • - catches with rigid upper body
    • - pushes riding toy with feet
    • - little steering
  31. gross motor skills at 3-4 yrs
    • - walks up stairs with alternating feet
    • - walks down stairs, leading with one foot
    • - jumps and hops, flexing upper body
    • - throws and catches with slight involvement of upper body
    • - catches by trapping ball against chest
    • - pedals and steers tricycle
  32. gross motor skills at 4-5 yrs
    • - walks down stairs alternating feet
    • - runs smoothly
    • - gallops and skips with one foot
    • - throws ball with body rotation and transfer of weight on feet
    • - catches ball with hands
    • - rides tricycle rapidly, steers smoothly
  33. gross motor skills at 5-6 yrs
    • - runs at 12 ft per second
    • - skips and sideways stepping
    • - mature, whole-body throwing and catching
    • - increases throwing speed
    • - rides bicycle with training wheels
  34. gross motor skills at 7-12 yrs
    • - runs more than 18 ft per second
    • - skips and steps sideways fluidly
    • - verticle jump at 4 to 12 inches
    • - broad jumpt 3+ feet
    • - accurately jumps from square to square
    • - throwing and kicking accuracy, distance and speed increases
    • - bats a ball involving whole body
    • - dribbling is continuous, relaxed and stroking
  35. hypothalamus
    • at base of the brain
    • - structure that initiates and regulates pituitary secretions
  36. pituitary gland
    releases most important hormone for human growth
  37. growth hormone (GH)
    • the only pituitary secretion produced continuously throughout life
    • - affects development of all tissues except the central nervous system and genitals
  38. thyroxine
    • released by thyroid gland
    • - necessary for brain development and for GH to have its full impact on body size
  39. estrogens and androgens
    present in both sexes, in different amounts
  40. secular trends in physical growth
    changes in body size and rate of growth from one generation to the next
  41. neuron
    • nerve cell
    • - store and transmit information
  42. synapses
    tiny gaps where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch
  43. neurotransmitters
    • cross synapses
    • - transmit messages
  44. programmed cell death
    makes space for neurofibers
  45. synaptic pruning
    neurons that are seldom stimulated soon lose their synapses
  46. glial cells
    • causes the dramatic increase in brain size during infancy and early childhood
    • - responsible for myelination
  47. myelination
    the coating of neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath (myelin) that improves the efficiency of message transfer
  48. cerebral cortex
    • surrounds brain
    • - largest brain structure
    • - contains greatest number of neurons and synapses
  49. lateralization
    specialization of the two hemispheres
  50. cerebellum
    structure that aids in balance and control of body movement
  51. reticular formation
    structure in brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness
  52. hippocampus
    plays a vital role in memory and in images of space that help us find our way
  53. experience-expectant brain growth
    the young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences (opportunities to see and touch objects, to hear language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment)
  54. experience-dependent brain growth
    additional growth and refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that occur throughout our lives, varying widely across individuals and cultures
  55. marasmus
    • a wasted condition of the body caused by a diet low in all essential nutrients
    • - usually occurs in first year of life when mother cannot provide adequate breast milk
  56. kwashiorkor
    • caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein
    • - usually strikes after weaning (between 1 and 3 yrs of age)
  57. nonorganic failure to thrive
    • growth disorder resulting from lack of parental love
    • - present by 18 months of age
    • - show signs of marasmus
  58. psychosocial dwarfism
    • growth disorder that usually appears between 2 and 15 years of age
    • - very short stature
    • - decreased GH secretion
    • - immature skeletal age
    • - serious adjustment problems
  59. adolescent moodiness
    • - greater than children and adultes
    • - linked to disciplinary actions at school, difficulty getting along with parents, breaking up with bf or gf
  60. anorexia nervosa
    a tragic eating disturbance in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat
  61. bulimia
    young people engage in strict dieting and excessive exercise accopmanied by binge eating, often followed by deliberate vomiting and purging with laxatives