Ecology Chapter 5

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zzto
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168902
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Ecology Chapter 5
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2012-09-13 09:13:58
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Ecology Chapter ECU
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Ecology Chapter 5 ECU
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  1. Chapter 5
  2. Concept 5.1: Organisms obtain energy from 
    sunlight, from inorganic chemical compounds, or through the consumption of organic compounds.
  3. Concept 5.2: Radiant and chemical energy
    captured by autotrophs is converted into
    stored energy in carbon–carbon bonds.
  4. Concept 5.3: Environmental constraints
    resulted in the evolution of biochemical
    pathways that improve the ---------- of
    photosynthesis.
    efficiency
  5. Concept 5.4: ------------------ have evolved mechanisms to acquire and assimilate energy efficiently from a variety of organic sources.
    Heterotrophs
  6. • Sunlight is ----------- energy.
    • Chemical energy is stored in the ----------
    radiant

    bonds of food molecules.
  7. Autotrophs are organisms that assimilate energy from ---------, or from--------------------
    sunlight (photosynthesis)

    inorganic compounds (chemosynthesis).
  8. The energy Autotrophs take in is converted into chemical energy stored in the
    carbon–carbon bonds of organic molecules.
  9. Heterotrophs obtain their energy by consuming -----from other organisms.
    energy-rich organic compounds
  10. Some heterotrophs consume ------------organic matter.
    non-living 
  11. Parasites and herbivores are heterotrophs that consume live hosts, but do not necessarily 
    kill them.
  12. Predators are heterotrophs that -------------live prey animals.
    capture and consume 
  13. Hemiparasite-
    photosynthetic, but obtains nutrients, water, and some of its energy from the host plant.
  14. Most autotrophs obtain energy through ----------
    photosynthesis. Sunlight provides the energy to take up CO2 and synthesize organic compounds.
  15. Chemosynthesis (chemolithotrophy) is a process that uses energy from ---------------- to produce carbohydrates.
    inorganic compounds
  16. Chemosynthesis is important in bacteria involved in --------------, and in some ecosystems such as ocean vent communities.
    nutrient cycling
  17. Photosynthesis has two major steps:
    • The “light reaction”—light is harvested and used to split water and provide electrons to make ATP and NADPH.
    • The “dark reaction”—CO2 is fixed in the Calvin cycle, and carbohydrates are synthesized.
  18. A key enzyme in the Calvin cycle is
    ribulose 1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase, or “rubisco.”
  19. --------------is the most abundant enzyme on Earth.
    Rubisco
  20. ----------------- diffuses across cell membranes or is taken up from the atmosphere through the stomates of vascular plants.
    CO2
  21. The net reaction of photosynthesis is:
    6CO2+6H2O----> C6H12O6+6O2
  22. Ecotypes-
    genetically distinct types of organisms in the same species
  23. Plants that lack specialized biochemistry use the
    C3 photosynthetic pathway. Other metabolic processes can also decrease photosynthetic efficiency.
  24. ------------------------resulted in the evolution of biochemical pathways that improve the efficiency of photosynthesis.
    Environmental constraints
  25. Rubisco can catalyze two competing reactions.
    • Carboxylase reaction: (photosynthesis).
    • Oxygenase reaction: (photorespiration).
  26. Oxygenase reaction:
    O2 is taken up, leading to breakdown of carbon compounds and release of CO2 (photorespiration).
  27. Carboxylase reaction:
    CO2 is taken up, sugars are synthesized, and O2 is released (photosynthesis).
  28. Ase ending means
    enzyme
  29. what is the CAM system?
    A Temporal  Separation of Photosynthesis
  30. difference of CAM system
    Stomata can be closed during the day.
  31. Some plants have a unique photosynthetic pathway that minimizes water loss----------------
    —Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).
  32. CAM plants open their stomates at night when --------------------.
    air temperatures are cooler and humidity higher. The plants loose less water than if stomates are open during the day
  33. C4=space ----- =time
    CAM
  34. CAM is not effective in dealing with
    low water availability and high temperatures
  35. At night, CAM plants take up CO2 using ----------- and incorporate it into a four-carbon acid, which is stored in vacuoles.
    PEPcase
  36. Insect flight requires a lot of energy. Some insects have ---------------------to initiate flight
    fat storage bodies for lipids
  37. Humans require carbohydrates for brain activity. Low blood sugar can lead to ------------
    poor cognitive ability
  38. Variation in bill morphology reflects adaptations that help to optimize------------ and minimize ------------ among groups of birds.
    optimize food acquisition and minimize competition

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