day 2 of lectures

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day 2 of lectures
2012-09-04 18:35:38

day 2 lectures
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  1. Central nervous system

    -spinal cord
  2. Peripheral  nervous system

    • -autonomic
    • *sympathetic
    • *parasympathetic
  3. Brain and spinal cord protected by...



    -blood barrier brain
  4. types of glia cells
    -oligodendrocytes CNS and Schwann cells PNS

    -astrocytes (blood brain barrier)

    • -radial glia
    • *scaffolding and support
  5. Neuroanatomical techniques
    -electron miscroscopy

    -Nissl Stain

  6. (neuroanatomical techniques) Nissl Stain (3)
    -stains bind to structures only in soma

    -good method for gross structure and counting overall number of cells

    -enters all cells and colors them unlike golgi stain
  7. (neuroanatomical techniques) 2 types of Tracers
    antograde and retrograde
  8. (types of tracers) Antergrade
    are absorbed by cell bodies and the neurons transport the tracer through their axons to axon terminals
  9. (types of tracers) Retrograde
    are taken by axon terminals and transported back to cell bodies
  10. Afferent information flow
    going to the brain
  11. Efferent information flow
    going out of brain to spinal
  12. (Directions) Dorsal
    top of surface
  13. (directions) Ventral
    belly surface
  14. (directions) Anterior
    close to nose
  15. (directions) Posterior
    close to tail
  16. (directions) Medial
    close to the midline
  17. (directions) lateral
    furthest from midline
  18. (directions of planes brain cut) Sagittal plane
    cut in half with brain standing upright

    *up and down
  19. (directions of planes brain cut) Horizontal plane
    cut in half from left to right with brain standing upright
  20. (directions of planes brain cut) Frontal plane
    cut in half from front to back with brain standing upright
  21. Environmental factors can have effects on the developing nervous system . T or F?
  22. 7 characteristics of FAS
    • -small brain
    • -faulty arrangement of brain cells and connective tissue
    • -mental retardation
    • *occasionally severe
    • -learning disabilities
    • -short attention span
    • -irritability in infancy
    • -poor body, hand, and finger coordination
  23. developing embryo has 3 disntint layers
    • -ectoderm
    • -mesoderm
    • -endoderm
  24. overview of neural stem cells (3)
    • -are multipotent cells
    • *are destined to become nervous cells, but can become any nervous cell
    • -stem cells can also divide and replicate with no end
    • -make good candidates for diseases of nervous system
  25. 2 types of Neural tube defects
    Anencephaly and spina bifida
  26. (types of nueral tube defects) Anencephaly
    failure of the neural tube to close at the anterior end imcompatible with life
  27. (types of nueral tube defects) Spina Bifida
    failure of the neural tube to close along the posterior part.

    *results in lower limb paralysis and cognitive impairments
  28. (Divisions of adult brain) Hindbrain
    -Metencephalon and Myelecephalon
  29. (Divisions of adult brain) Midbrain
  30. (Divisions of adult brain) Forebrain
    -Telencephalon and Dicenphalon
  31. White matter in brain
    made of mostly of myelinated axons which gives a white appearance
  32. Grey Matter in brain
    made up mostly of cell bodies which are not myelinated
  33. overview of Myelencephalon
    -also called the medulla

    -brain meets the spinal cord

    -comprised of mainly myelinated bundles of axons or tracts that carry info to the brain or to spinal cord
  34. Babinski reflex
    • used as test of myelencephalon function
    • `
  35. (myelencephalon) Solitary tract
    -first part of brain that receives information about taste

    -critical for blood pressure and respiration
  36. Reticular formation
    cells play vital role in respiration, heart beat, arousal and muscle acitivty
  37. Mentencephalon
    -contains pons and cerebellum
  38. (Metencephalon) Pons
    • --made up of afferent and efferent tracts but has some groups of cells critical for functions necessary for life like respiration
    • *^ just like myelencephalon
  39. (metencephalon) Cerebellum
    -" little brain"

    -important in motor function as well as cognition
  40. Mesencephalon
    2 parts to it called: Tectum and tegmentum
  41. (Mesencephalon) Tectum
    -means roof

    -has two functions: inferior colliculus and superior colliculus
  42. (tectum) Inferior colliculus
    important in processing auditory information
  43. (tectum) Superior colliculus
    important in processing visual information
  44. (Mesencephalon) Tegmentum
    - contains tracts as well

    • -periaqueductal gray
    • -substanitia nigra
    • -red nucleus
  45. (tegmentum) Periaqueductal gray
    -involved in processing information about pain
  46. (tegmentum) Substanitia nigra
    involved in movement

    *destroyed in parkinsons disease
  47. (tegmentum) Red nucleus
    involved in posture and movement
  48. 2 structures in Diencephalon
    Thalamus and hypothalamus
  49. (diencephalon) Thalamus
    critical for passing info from sensory areas of hind brain to forebrain. As well as passing info from cortex and other forebrain structures to the hindbrain to move the body
  50. (diencephalon) Hypothalamus (2)
    critical for sending signals to the pituatiary gland which releases hormones involved in growth, sex, and stress.

    -critical for motivated behaviors such as feeding, drinking as well as thermoregulation
  51. Telencephalon
    comprises of cerebral cortex.

    dips in fold= sulci (larger=fissures)

    ridges= gyri
  52. longitudinal fissure
    -seperates the two cerebral hemispheres