Anatomy Chapter 1

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andreakristin807
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Anatomy Chapter 1
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2012-09-04 18:31:05
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Anatomy Chapter 1 - Exam 1
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  1. macroscopic anatomy
    gross anatomy
  2. surface anatomy
    macroscopic anatomy - superficial structures
  3. systematic anatomy
    macroscopic anatomy - specific body area
  4. developmental anatomy
    macroscopic anatomy - structural changes during maturity
  5. microscopic anatomy
    requires magnification
  6. cytology
    microscopic anatomy - study of internal cellular structures
  7. histology
    microscopic anatomy - study of tissues
  8. Physiology
    the study of biological function
  9. cell physiology
    study of the function of cells
  10. special physiology
    study of the functions of specific organs
  11. systematic physiology
    study of the function of organ systems
  12. pathological physiology
    study of the function of diseases
  13. levels of organization
    atoms --> compounds --> cells --> tissues --> organs --> organ systems --> organism
  14. characteristics of life
    • a) move/grow
    • b) reproduce
    • c) respond
    • d) metabolize
    • e) homeostasis
  15. metabolize
    processing chemicals to make energy
  16. homeostasis
    the ability of the body to maintain a stable environment
  17. autoregulation
    intrinsic response by the cell, tissue, or organ - local
  18. extrinsic regulation
    response triggered by nervous or endocrine response
  19. process of homeostatic regulation
    1) a recepor sensitive to a particular stimulus or environmental change detects the stimulus and submits the information 2) a control center receives and processes the information supplied by the receptor and sends out commands 3) an effector, a cell or organ that responds to the commands of the control center and whose activity either opposes or enhances the stimulus.
  20. negative feedback
    change from normal triggers a response to restore the homeostasis - stops when the normal range (set point) is restored.
  21. positive feedback
    change cuases a ore exaggerated change - stops when signaled by an outside force
  22. anatomical position
    hands at sides, palms facing forward
  23. 9 abdominopelvic regions
    • Right Hypochondrial
    • Epigastric
    • Left Hypochondrial

    • Right Lumbar
    • Umbilical
    • Left Lumbar

    • Right Iliac
    • Hypogastric
    • Left Iliac
  24. transverse section
    horizontal cut - results in superior and inferior parts
  25. frontal/coronal section
    results in anterior and posterior parts
  26. sagittal section
    results in left and right parts
  27. mid-
    equal halves
  28. body
    anywhere off center
  29. body cavities
    organs suspended in internal chambers
  30. serosal membranes
    reduce friction between internal structures and the cavities
  31. visceral serosa
    the side of the membrane toward the organ (lines organs)
  32. parietal serosa
    the side of the membrane toward the body wall (lines body cavities)
  33. frontal
    forehead
  34. nasal
    nose
  35. ocular, orbital
    eye
  36. otic
    ear
  37. buccal
    cheek
  38. cervical
    neck
  39. thoracic
    thorax, chest
  40. mammary
    breast
  41. abdominal
    abdomen
  42. umbilical
    navel
  43. pelvic
    pelvis
  44. manual
    hand
  45. inguinal
    groin
  46. pubic
    pubis
  47. femoral
    thigh
  48. pedal
    foot
  49. hallux
    big toe
  50. digits (phalanges)
    fingers or toes
  51. tarsal
    ankle
  52. crural
    leg
  53. patellar
    kneecap
  54. pollex
    thumb
  55. palmar
    palm
  56. carpal
    wrist
  57. antebrachial
    forearm
  58. antebrachial
    forearm
  59. antecubital
    front of elbow
  60. brachial
    arm
  61. axillary
    armpit
  62. oral
    mouth
  63. mental
    chin
  64. cephalic
    head
  65. cranial
    skull
  66. facial
    face
  67. acromial
    shoulder
  68. dorsal
    back
  69. olecranal
    back of elbow
  70. lumbar
    loin (base of back)
  71. gluteal
    buttock
  72. popliteal
    back of knee
  73. sural
    calf
  74. calcaneal
    heel of foot
  75. plantar
    sole of foot
  76. anterior
    the front surface
  77. ventral
    the belly side (equivalent to anterior when referring to human body)
  78. posterior/dorsal
    the back surface
  79. cranial/cephalic
    the head
  80. superior
    above; at a higher level (in the human body, toward the head)
  81. caudal
    the tail
  82. inferior
    below, at a lower level
  83. medial
    toward the body's longitudinal axis; toward the midsaggittal plane
  84. proximal
    toward an attached base
  85. distal
    away from an attached base
  86. superficial
    at, near, or relatively close to the body surface
  87. deep
    farther from the body surface

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