Biology Exam1

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Biology Exam1
2012-09-04 23:33:59

Biology Exam1
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  1. All living matter is made up of what 6 things
  2. why are covalent bonds strong and an example of one 
    Covalent bonding makes very strong connections between the atoms, so it's hard to break these molecules apart.

  3. Why are hydrogen bonds and why are they weak
    A hydrogen bond is an attraction between a partial positive charge and a partial negative charge, because they are not full charges, they are weak charges, and so the attraction between them is weak.
  4. Example of a polar molcule 
  5. Example of a non-polar molecule
    hydrocarbons, lipids
  6. What are the chateristic of a polar molcule
    • 1.) able to dissolve in water due to the polar nature of water
    • 2.) Polar molecules have slightly positive and slightly negatively charged ends.
  7. What are the chateristic of a non-polar molcule
    • - occurs when there is an equal sharing of electrons between two atoms. 
    • - non-polar molecules are water insoluble (hydrophobic) 
  8. Define hydrophonic
    tend to be non-polar and, thus, prefer other neutral molecules and non-polar solvents. ( not warter loving) 
  9. hydrophilic 
     typically charge- polarized and capable of hydrogen bonding, enabling it to dissolve more readily in water
  10. What is Dehydration Synthesis and an example of what it does
    usually defined as a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule. Stores energy 

    Ex. When glucose and Frutose bond and lost hto sucose it formed.
  11. When monosaccharides are joined together by dehydration synthesis then it is called_________ and forms what type of bond
     glycosidic linkage; covalent 
  12. What is anabolic
    • reference to building up small molecules to larger ones
    • Dehydration 
  13. endergonic reaction
    is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.

  14. Hydrolysis does what two things
    Adds water and releases energy
  15. What is water added in hydrolysis
    To break down the cavalent bond
  16. Wnat is the Catabolic does 
    processes are those which break down complex molecules to release energy. hydrolysis
  17. The catabolism of glucose is exergonic because it 
    releases free energy.
  18. What are waters 6 main properties
    • Cohension
    • Adhestion
    • Transpiration
    • High specfic head
    • less dens as solid
    • Good solvent
  19. Cohension means
    Allows water to stick together with water
  20. Adhesion
     tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another
  21. Transpiration
     evaporation of water from plants
  22. Macromolecules 
     is a very large molecule commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits. 
  23. A carbohydrate is a
     organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, 
  24. A monomer is one of the subunits
  25. 3 lipids and their functions
    Fats, are composed of three fatty acids and glycerol  store energy,

    Phospholipids, two fatty acids, a glycerol unit,  major component of cell membranes

     Steroids, carbon backbone that consists of four fused ring-like structures; sex hormones
  26. The four levels of protein are:
    • 1) Primary Structure
    • 2) Secondary Structure
    • 3) Tertiary Structure
    • 4) Quaternary Structure
  27. Atoms - Biophere
    Atom -> Molecules -> organells -> cells->tissse->Organs->orgaism->popultion->communites->Eco systems->biomes->Biophere
  28. Proton, netrons, and electrons
    • Postive= protons
    • Netron= no charge
    • Electrons= negative charge
  29. How many bonds can carbon form and why
    4 bonds because it has 4 valence electron and needs 4 more to be equal
  30. Why Carbon bonds are important
    carbon bond gives rise to an enormous number of molecular forms, many of which are important structural elements of life
  31. 6 main functional groups
    hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, carboxyl group,  amino group, phosphate group and methyl group.
  32.  Inorganic compounds lack
    carbon and hydrogen atoms