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All living matter is made up of what 6 things
why are covalent bonds strong and an example of one
Covalent bonding makes very strong connections between the atoms, so it's hard to break these molecules apart.
Why are hydrogen bonds and why are they weak
A hydrogen bond is an attraction between a partial positive charge and a partial negative charge, because they are not full charges, they are weak charges, and so the attraction between them is weak.
Example of a polar molcule
Example of a non-polar molecule
What are the chateristic of a polar molcule
- 1.) able to dissolve in water due to the polar nature of water
- 2.) Polar molecules have slightly positive and slightly negatively charged ends.
What are the chateristic of a non-polar molcule
- - occurs when there is an equal sharing of electrons between two atoms.
- - non-polar molecules are water insoluble (hydrophobic)
tend to be non-polar and, thus, prefer other neutral molecules and non-polar solvents. ( not warter loving)
typically charge- polarized and capable of hydrogen bonding, enabling it to dissolve more readily in water
What is Dehydration Synthesis and an example of what it does
usually defined as a chemical reaction that involves the loss of water from the reacting molecule. Stores energy
Ex. When glucose and Frutose bond and lost hto sucose it formed.
When monosaccharides are joined together by dehydration synthesis then it is called_________ and forms what type of bond
glycosidic linkage; covalent
What is anabolic
- reference to building up small molecules to larger ones
is a chemical reaction in which the standard change in free energy is positive, and energy is absorbed.
Hydrolysis does what two things
Adds water and releases energy
What is water added in hydrolysis
To break down the cavalent bond
Wnat is the Catabolic does
processes are those which break down complex molecules to release energy. hydrolysis
The catabolism of glucose is exergonic because it
releases free energy.
What are waters 6 main properties
- High specfic head
- less dens as solid
- Good solvent
Allows water to stick together with water
tendency of dissimilar particles or surfaces to cling to one another
evaporation of water from plants
is a very large molecule commonly created by polymerization of smaller subunits.
A carbohydrate is a
organic compound that consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen,
A monomer is one of the subunits
3 lipids and their functions
Fats, are composed of three fatty acids and glycerol store energy,
Phospholipids, two fatty acids, a glycerol unit, major component of cell membranes
Steroids, carbon backbone that consists of four fused ring-like structures; sex hormones
The four levels of protein are:
- 1) Primary Structure
- 2) Secondary Structure
- 3) Tertiary Structure
- 4) Quaternary Structure
Atoms - Biophere
Atom -> Molecules -> organells -> cells->tissse->Organs->orgaism->popultion->communites->Eco systems->biomes->Biophere
Proton, netrons, and electrons
- Postive= protons
- Netron= no charge
- Electrons= negative charge
How many bonds can carbon form and why
4 bonds because it has 4 valence electron and needs 4 more to be equal
Why Carbon bonds are important
carbon bond gives rise to an enormous number of molecular forms, many of which are important structural elements of life
6 main functional groups
hydroxyl group, carbonyl group, carboxyl group, amino group, phosphate group and methyl group.
Inorganic compounds lack
carbon and hydrogen atoms