psychology ch.1,2,3

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psychology ch.1,2,3
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2012-09-19 20:15:31
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  1. medieval perspective 
    preformationism

    and little reconition that children arent adults
  2. what is preformationism?
    little adults
  3. reformation period children are?
    • naturally evil and must be conformed
    • emphasis on harsh disipline
  4. enlightenment period children are?
    WHAT effect do parents have?
    WHO is the influence?
    • -children come in to the world with out predispositions
    • -parents have large effect on development progress
    • -opposite of reformation
    • -JOHN LOCKE
  5. what is tabula rasa?
    blank slate
  6. what are children in the 18th century? according to Rosseau
    • noble savage
    • children are born w/knowledge of right and wrong
    • requires little adult involvement
  7. 4 stages of learning according to Rosseau?
    • infancy
    • childhood
    • late childhood
    • adolesence
  8. baby biographies are what?
    analyze behaviors and natural reflexes
  9. 19th-20th century
    how did charles darwin assist?
    developed theories which focus on adaptibility on human behavior
  10. what is the normative approach?
    WHO was important during this?
    • popularized parent advice literature
    • Hall and Gesell
  11. what was the 1st objective study by Gesell?
    Gesell Dome with baby
  12. what is the mental testing movement?
    • develop test to identify mentally retarded children in paris
    • examined norms in cognitive thinking who were outside the norms 
    • interested in individual differences
  13. what does a theory do?
    • defines events
    • describes relationships
    • provide explanation
    • predictions
    • guides future research
  14. psychodynamic perspective?
    • sex drives to compete with societal expectations
    • resolves conflict shapes development
  15. what theory developed through Freud's work?
    psychoanalytic
  16. what is the psychoanalytic theory?
    • used hypothesis
    • emphasized unconcious through process
    • free association and dream analysis
  17. what are the three parts of Freuds psychosexual theory?
    • ID
    • EGO
    • SUPEREGO
  18. What is the ID?
    What are the two parts of ID?
    • basic urges
    • Eros: life force- drive for good/satisfaction
    • Thanatos: death force- drive for death/destruction
    • -ID could destroy world by itself
  19. what is the EGO?
    • develops in early infancy
    • seeks to satisfy in socially responsible ways
    • must resolve competing demands of ID and SUPEREGO
  20. what is SUPEREGO?
    • develops between ages 3-6 years
    • values and morality
    • learning from enviroment
  21. Freud's Stages (5)
    • oral
    • anal
    • phallic
    • latency
    • genital
  22. Oral stage?
    fixation of stage?
    • exploring world through mouth
    • ex. nailbiting
  23. Anal stage?
    fixation of stage?
    • seek pleasure through going to the bathroom
    • anal retentive- controlling
  24. phallic stage?
    fixation on stage?
    • penis is center of attention
    • never want to move away from home
  25. latency stage?
    • no sexual urges
    • time for education
  26. genital stage?
    • puberty restarts sexual urges
    • healthy development leads to love, marriage
  27. what did Freud theory contribute?
    layout stage theory
  28. critisism of freud theory?
    • no observations of children
    • no variance
  29. what did erickson psychosocial theory focus on?
    • neo-freudian
    • positive and negative attributes developed
    • focus more on social than sexual
  30. difference between freud vs. erickson
    • whole lifespan
    • positives and negatives
    • specifies life changes
  31. what is behaviorism?
    • emphasis on enviromental influences
    • focus on observable behavior
  32. what kind of classical conditioning did watson do?
    • applied it to childrens behavior
    • little albert and the rat (fear all white things)
  33. what is operant conditioning?
    responses are learned to produce some reward or desired effect
  34. what is a positive reinforcement?
    • give reward to encourage behavior
    • -gold star
  35. what is negative reinforcement?
    • take away aversive thing to encourage behavior
    • -seat belt noise
  36. what is positive punishment?
    • give aversive thing to discourage behavior
    • -spanking
  37. what is negative punishment?
    • take away reward to discourage behavior
    • -grounded
  38. what is the social learning theory
    who made the theory?
    • people learn by modeling or imintating others
    • Bandura
  39. what is cognitive developmental theory?
    who made theory?
    • children adapt new information so that it fits with exsisting cognitive structures
    • Piaget
  40. what are the four stages of Piagets theory?
    • sensorimotor stage- infant
    • preoperational stage- early childhood
    • concreteoperational stage- mid childhood
    • formal operational stage- adolescence
  41. what is vygotsky social cultural theory?
    culture values and norms are transmitted to child
  42. What is the ecological systems theory?
    who created it?
    • empazies child biology and many contextual systems in which child is embedded
    • Bronfenbrenner
  43. What are the five nested contextual systems?
    ecological theory
    • Microsystem
    • mesosystem
    • exosystem
    • marcosystem
    • chronosystem
  44. what is the microsystem?
    anything child interacts with daily
  45. what is the mesosystem?
    how different componants of the microsystem interact
  46. what is the exosystem?
    interact with but not on regular basis
  47. what is the macrosystem?
    cultural constucts, laws, customs
  48. what is the chronosystem?
    how systems develop and change over time
  49. what are the steps of the scientific method?
    • identify a question
    • forming a hypothesis
    • choose a research method
    • collect data
    • draw conclusions
  50. where does an idea come from?
    • previous research
    • theory
    • personal observation
  51. what is a descriptive design?
    describes situation of study
  52. what is correlation design?
    relationship between two or more variables that are related
  53. what is experimental design?
    can see cause and effect between two or more variables
  54. types of descriptive studies?
    • case study
    • ethonography
  55. what is a case study?
    extensive in depth interview with a particular individual or small group
  56. what is a ethnography?
    researchers immerse themselves in another culture and try not to influence
  57. what is a correlation study?
    • two or more variables are related to each other
    • cannot determine causation
  58. what are the types of correlation studies ? -3
    • cross sectional study
    • logitudinal
    • cross-sequential
  59. what is a cross sectional study?
    people at different ages are compared at the same point in time
  60. problems with a cross sectional study?
    • cannot see differences in age
    • cohort effect
  61. what is longitudinal study?
    one group with behavior of participants measured over time
  62. problems with a longitdinal study?
    • cohort effects
    • attrition
    • time consuming
  63. what is cross sequential study?
    • examine two or more cohorts
    • takes less time
    • less likely to contribute to cohort effects
  64. what is experimental design?
    • gold standard
    • we can see if one variable causes effect on other variables
  65. what is random assignment?
    • randomly put into groups
    • -no bias
  66. what is an independent variable?
    manipulate in the study
  67. what is a dependent variable?
    outcome variable
  68. limitations with experimental design?
    • what happens in experiment might not happen in real life
    • some variables cannot be manipulated
    • demand characteristic
  69. ways to collect data?
    • observation- structured/natural
    • survey
    • interviews- clincal/structured
  70. what is oberservation natural way to collect data?
    unmodified
  71. what is a observation structured way to collect data??
    give them what you want them to interact with
  72. what is the survey way to collect data?
    report on others or self
  73. what is interviews with clinical data collection?
    partitipant share what they thinking and feeling
  74. what is interviews with structured data collection?
    • participants are asked to respond to specific questions
    • -more interactive
  75. what is generalizability?
    if the finding can be represented by population
  76. what is validity measures?
    measure what is suppose to be measured
  77. what is reliability of measures?
    if someone else did study would results be similar
  78. what is random sampling?
    when random people are chosen for study
  79. what are research ethics?
    • risk
    • benefit
    • protection from harm
    • informed consent
    • debriefing
    • confidentiality
  80. what is debriefing?
    explain what point of study is
  81. what is a gamate?
    one sex cell (sperm or egg)
  82. what is a chromosome?
    23 pairs of DNA contained in every cell in the body
  83. what is meiosis?
    process thru which gamates are formed
  84. what is a zygote?
    basic for of prenatal development going through mitosis
  85. what is mitosis?
    development of cells, the fetus growing
  86. what is an autosome?
    non sex cell/chromosomes
  87. what is dizygotic (fraternal)
    from two zygotes or eggs
  88. what is monozygotic (identical)?
    from one zygote or egg
  89. what is a genotype?
    specific genetic makeup of a individual
  90. what is phenotype?
    observable traits or characteristics
  91. what are dominant genes?
    expressed characteristics
  92. what are recessive genes?
    not expressed characteritics although part of genetics
  93. what is incomplete dominance?
    phenotype influenced primarly but not exclusively by dominant gene
  94. the ___ chromosome pair determines male or female?
    23rd
  95. males are more vulnerable to _-linked recessive disorders?
    x
  96. x-linked inheritance effects who more?
    males
  97. what is pleiotropism?
    single gene influences multiple phenotypic traits
  98. what is polygenic inheritance?
    multiple gene pairs that create one trait
  99. for the x-linked chromosome abnormality in down sydrome where is the extra material added?
    21st chromosome
  100. what is the life expectancy?
    lower
  101. greater risk for who?
    older mothers
  102. are chromosomal disorders passed from parent to child?
    no
  103. is there a relationship between maternal age and chromosomal disorders?
    yes
  104. is there a relationship between fathers age and chromosomal disorders?
    maybe
  105. male chromosomal disorder
    extra X or XXY
    tall
    lower level of testaterone
    klinefelter syndrome
  106. male chromosomal disorder
    extra Y or XYY
    increased amount of testosterone
    large stature
    broad shoulders
    XYY syndrome
  107. female chromosomal disorder
    extra X or XXX
    excess estrogen
    short stature
    triple-x syndrome
  108. female chromosomal disorder
    lack a X or XO
    mental handicap
    turner syndrome
  109. what is heredity estimates?
    how much individual differences in a trait is due to heredity
  110. what is concordance rates?
    • percentage that indicates degree of similarity in phenotype among pairs of family members
    • ex. son to dad
    • son to mom
  111. what is passive correlation?
    genes influencing phenotype
  112. what is evocation correlation?
    genes evocates change in enviroment
  113. what is active correlation?
    genetic makeup that fits with their phenotype
  114. first cell division in __ to __ hours
    12 - 24
  115. what is conception?
    rapid cell division while going down the fallopian tube
  116. what is a blastocyst?
    hollow ball of cells
  117. early miscarriage is due to?
    defective sperm
  118. germinal period major development?
    amnion, umbilical cord, placenta
  119. ectoderm?
    skin, nervous system
  120. mesoderm?
    bone, muscle
  121. endoderm?
    lungs, digestive system, internal organs
  122. major development in the embryonic period?
    major organs begin to form, heartbeat on 18th day
  123. major development in fetal period?
    significant brain development
  124. what does the fetus inhale/exhale during fetal period?
    amniotic fluid
  125. during fetal period oxygen comes from?
    umbilical cord
  126. what is vernix?
    cottage cheese substance that covers skin from amniotic fluid
  127. what is lanugo?
    thin hair provides warmth
  128. when is movement felt by mother?
    16-20 weeks
  129. at 5 months what is the baby doing in the womb?
    sleep/wake cycle
  130. at 9 months what closes and reopens at 7 months?
    eyes
  131. what is the age of viability?
    when fetus can survive out of the womb
  132. fetus gains __ lbs in last trimester
    5
  133. what are prenatal beliefs impacted by?
    generational wisdom of time
  134. what are some prenatal beliefs?
    • avoid wine
    • some meats
    • witches
    • strong foods
  135. what is current science driven prenatal method that is derived from traditional cultures?
    massages
  136. current prenatal care can vary based on?
    ethnicity and sociol economic status
  137. developing world would less likely recieve what care?
    prenatal
  138. what is the current prenatal focus on ?
    diet, exercise and teratogens
  139. two key vitamins in prenatal diet care?
    iodine and iron
  140. where is iodine a bigger issue?
    developing countries
  141. what vitamin is necessary for a healthy pregnancy?
    iron
  142. what type of physical activity is encourage when pregnant?
    • aerobic
    • non-aerobic (kegals)
  143. what are teratogens?
    anything that can harm developing fetus
  144. examples of teratogens?
    • alcohol
    • tobacco
    • stress
    • caffeine
  145. when is the baby most vulnerable to teratogens?
    embryo
  146. when can tetorgens affect the developing fetus and embryo?
    anytime
  147. rural nature of half of the worlds population impacts what?
    nutrition
  148. childrens health could vary based on ____ or area of conception
    country
  149. maternal obesity is linked to ?
    baby complications
  150. rubella exposure during embryonic stage can lead to what?
    heart abnormalities and mental retardation
  151. rubella exposure during the fetus stage can lead to what?
    hearing problems and low birth weight
  152. what three strategies can prevent AIDS transmission?
    • effective medicines
    • c-section
    • infant formula
  153. what are the consequences of smoking while pregnant?
    • low birth weight
    • miscarriage
  154. what is fetal alcohol syndrome?
    physical effects, flat face, mother drinking heavily during pregnancy
  155. consequences of asprin?
    low birth wt
  156. consequences of illicet drugs?
    • prematurity
    • siezures
    • speech problems
  157. conseqences of caffeine?
    most vulnerable when?
    • learning disabilities
    • miscarriage
    • last trimester
  158. what are the consequences of mercury and lead?
    • cognitive defects
    • still birth
  159. effect of tratogen may depend on when what occurs?
    exposure
  160. what are other prenatal factors that have to do with the mother?
    • age
    • stress
    • SES
  161. what are the three main causes of men infertility?
    • too few sperm
    • quality of sperm
    • low motility
  162. main cause of women infertility?
    ovulation
  163. what were some historical infertility treatments?
    • bloodletting
    • mutual orgasm
    • surgery on woman
  164. why is there an infertility belt in africa?
    • disease
    • malnourished
  165. what is the cat in the hat study?
    mother read to fetus for last trimester everyday
  166. stages of birth?
    • labor
    • baby out
    • placenta out
  167. first stage: labor
    time?
    contractions in the uterus cause ___ to dialate
    what is the rule of thumb? 5-1-1
    • longest
    • cervix
    • 5 min apart
    • last 1 min
    • pattern contiue for 1 hour
  168. second stage: delivery
    ________ occurs
    mulitple pushes because of ______
    • crowning
    • twisting of baby
  169. third stage: expel placenta
    complcations can occur from what?
    placenta not come out
  170. two common birth complications?
    • failure to progress
    • breech presentation
  171. what can be done to dal with birth complications?
    c-section
  172. c-sections differ thru out countries why?
    • tools avaiable
    • doctors avaiable
  173. culutures may have ______ traditions for mothers after birth
    purifying
  174. _______ also has meaning in some cultures
    what do some cultures do with?
    some cultures believe placenta has value for?
    • placenta
    • bury it
    • hormones and nutrients
  175. ______ and ________ support important
    medical use of ______ in developed countries
    ____  ___ can help with pain
    how is the placenta delivered
    umbilical cord can be ___ & ____
    • emotional and social
    • epidural
    • birthing positions
    • varies methods
    • cut and tied
  176. what is the apgar scale?
    • scale that rates
    • appearance
    • pulse
    • grimace
    • activity
    • respiration
  177. what is anoxia?
    lack of oxygen to the brain
  178. what is prematurity?
    born before 37 weeks after conception
  179. what is the biggest complication with prematurity?
    birth wt
  180. how does the baby ususally act when born premature
    irratible
  181. what is low birth wt?
    under 5.5lbs
  182. what is the best predictor of infant survival ?
    birth wt
  183. what is a postmature infant?
    • 2 weeks past due date
    • usually long in length and skinny in wt
  184. what are we 41st in the world for infant mortality?
    • more taratogens
    • higher uninsured
  185. numerous reflexes of infants due to _____
    stimuli
  186. palmer grasp, moro and rooting disappear when?
    1st year
  187. what sense is the easiest to develop?
    touch
  188. neonates __ feel pain
    do
  189. ____ and ___ become well developed?
    show smell preferences for ____ diet
    prefer what taste?
    prefers mothers ____ 
    • taste and smell
    • mothers
    • sweet
    • breast milk
  190. hearing is sensative to what?
    prefer what voice?
    have problems with?
    • human speech
    • mothers
    • locating sound
  191. what is the least developed?
    binocular and color are ____
    prefer _____ to random designs
    prefer _____ to other patterns
    • vision
    • limited
    • patterns
    • faces
  192. what is a preference paradigm?
    infants exposure to two faces look longer at familiar one
  193. what is habituation-dishauituation?
    constant exposure to pattern become bored, slight change become interested
  194. what is intermodal perception?
    combine multiple senses to percieve something
  195. infant upset when sights and sounds are not _____
    synchronous
  196. who do newborns imitate?
    adults
  197. three distint cries
    • fussing
    • anger
    • pain
  198. fussing cry is what?
    soft, unsteady
  199. anger cry is what?
    large sound of air
  200. pain crying is what?
    sudden onset
  201. crying can be classified as basic if no distintive ___ is noted
    cry
  202. crying curve relates to ____ ______
    crying frequency
  203. when do babies cry the most
    2 months
  204. duration and intensity of crying _____ between cultures
    what is swaddling?
    • differ
    • wrapping the babies arms and legs tight together

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