Card Set Information
Neuroscience Week 7
a clinical syndrome characterized by acquired impairment
multiple neuropsychological and behavioral domains (memory, cognition, visuospatial skills, langauge)
not specific to any pathological process
What are the two basic patterns of dementia?
Cortical Dementia (Alzheimer's Disease, Frontotemporal Dementia)
Subcortical Dementia (vascular dementia, extrapyramidal syndromes, normal pressure hydrocephalus)
What are the symptoms of Mild Cognitive Impairment?
Memory complaint by patient, confirmed by family or physician---> MMSE>24
Normal activities of daily living
Normal general cognitive function
objective memory impairment for age and education
What do you do with someone who presents with mild cognitive impairment?
tell them to exercise, diet more
Progressive Neurodegenerative Disorder
most common cause of dementia
Affects 5 million people
3rd most costly disease in US because of nursing homes
What are the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease?
Family HX (4X)
mutations of chromosomes 1, 14, 21
What is the pathology seen in Alzheimer's Disease?
: not of primary motor, sensory, and visual cortex
loss of neurons
: hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, Locus Ceruleus, Nucleus Basalis
Neuritic amyloid plaques
Low ACh levels
What is the criteria for diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease?
impairment of 2 areas of cognition:
disturbance in executive functioning
progressive decline in memory funciton
no disturbance in consciousness
no systemic disease that could account for dementia
What can an MRI do for a patient with suspected Alzheimer's Disease?
Exclude other possibilities
Show brain atrophy, especially in the temporal lobe
How do we treat Alzheimer's Disease?
: Tacrine, Donepezil, Rivastigmine, Galanamine
What are the symptoms of Frontotemporal degeneration dementia?
decline in social conduct precedes cognitive changes
: decline in manners, disinhibited behavior, apathy
What is Primary Progressive Aphasia?
Expressive Language disorder prior to memory loss
What is vascular dementia?
accounts for 10-20% of dementia
temporal relationship of stroke and dementia or stepwise progression of cognitive deficits
CADASIL- cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoenceophalopathy (mutation in Notch3 gene)
What is Lewy Body Dementia?
Progressive congitive deterioration
fluctuation in cognition/attention, well-formed visual hallucinations, parkinsonism
What is Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease?
sporadic, familial, iatrogenic and new variant
happens around 65 years of age
rapidly progressive dementia
focal neurologic symptoms- such as visual loss, aphasia, ataxia, movement disorder
death within 1 year
What is Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus?
Slowly progressive cognitive decline
gait disorder (magnetic/apraxic-feet magnetized to floor gait)
ventricular enlargement out of proportion to cortical atrophy
lumbar puncture/ventriculo-peritoneal shunt