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What are the primary tools for drawing attention?
- 1. Magazine advertising
- 2. Outdoor billboards
- 3. On-air spot promotion
What are three main groups of marketing messages?
- 1. Audiences
- 2. Advertisers
- 3. Affiliates
What are the two main types of audiences?
- 1. Current viewers, listeners and subscribers
- 2. Potential viewers, listeners and subscribers
What is sales promotion?
1. Preparing materials for businesses to sell them advertising time or space.
What are underwriters?
the corporations supplying grants for producins or airing programs
What are studios sydicators?
1. Distributors of programs
What are affiliates?
Program outlets that are connected to a program source such as broadcast network or a cable network.
What did the 1996 telecommunications act do?
1. Increased the number of stations that a network can own.
What is cross channel promotion?
Airing promotions for one station or network on another co-owned one.
Example: ABC ---- ESPN or E!----NBC. The key is shared ownership.
What are the three elements required for getting a program to viewers?
- 1. Production
- 2. Distribution
- 3. Exhibition
What is vertical integration?
When a campany owns all three elements required for getting a program to viewers. (production, distribution, exhibition)
What does MSO stand for?
1. Multiple System Operator
What are MSO's?
1. The primary source for exhibition of cable stations.
**Since the majority of television viewers subscribe to cable, they are also the primary source of exhibition to broadcast affiliate stations.
Name the top 5 program companies.
- 1.Time Warner
- 2. Disney
- 3. Viacom
- 4. Fox
- 5. NBC Universal
What percent of the media do the big five control?
1. Between 80 and 90 percent.
What are subniche channels?
1. Line extensions of company programs.
Example: ESPN , ESPN2, ESPNU or Discovery, Discovery kids, Discovery home, etc. etc.
What is the multi-platform perspective driven by?
1. The illegal practice of paying a DJ to play a song.
Secretly paying a DJ or television talent ro illegally endorse a product or service.
What is the strategic goal of most prime-time television.
1. To capture the largest audience possible, especially 18- 49 year olds.
Describe acquisitive goal.
A company seeking to capture new viewers, listeners or subscribers.
Define the recycling goal.
When a companny strives to move audiences from one time period into another time period.
Define retentive goal.
Wehn a company focuses on keeping its current audiences.
Describe competitive promtion.
When one company names another company in its promotional messages.
Ex: Mac vs PC... "Our Mac doesn't get viruses and your PC does"
What are demographic groups?
Age & Gender.
What are psychographic groups defined by?
Common interests or hobbies.
What is a networks strategic goal?
Reaching the demographic group of people ages 18-49.
What is a tactical goal?
Promoting hits and almost hit shows, in order to keep and raise ratings.
Define the internal media tactic.
When the company uses its own air to schedule promos either on the smae channel or co-owned channels and trades space/time on co=owned properties.
Define the external media tactic.
Seeking new audiences by means of paid advertising in other company's channels and publications.
Name some tools of promotion.
1. on- air promos and bumpers, logo-bugs and pop up titling, print advertising, websites, games and contests, and outdoor activities.
What is brand positioning?
Increasing competition to build widely reognized logos in America and around the world.
What is carriage program rating?
The size of the audience for the promotion.
List the subscriber groups.
- 1. Cable
- 2. Satellite
- 3. Pay services
How are lotteries handled.
1.Each state determines whether lotteries are legal within state boundaries and 2. Whether they can be advertised.
When is broadcasting information about a lotter legal under federal law?
- 1. If the lotter is not prohibited by state law
- 2. If the lotter is conducted by a charitable organization (those that qualify as tax-exempt under Section 501 of the Internal Revenue Code)
- 3. If the lottery is conducted by a business where the lottery is a" promotional activity and is clearly occasional and ancillary to the primary business of that organization.:
What constitutes a lottery?
Any game involving a valuable prize, a just-above-minimal cost for entering the contest and random chance
A just-above minimal cost for entering a contest.
What is a contest?
A lottery with one of the three elements missing.
When must a station file a 1099 form with the IRS?
Whenever a winner of a contest is awarded more than $600 in prize.
What is cooperative advertising?
When a manufacturer and a retailer share advertising costs.
What are some examples of trademarks?
- 1. Network and station logos
- 2. Wordmarks
- 3. Slogans
**Some attention-getting symbols, sounds, original program titles, call letters and distinct personalities may be protected.
What does ASCAP stand for?
American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers
What does BMI stand for?
Broadcast Music Incorporated
What does SESAC stand for?
Society of European Stage Authors and Composers
What does SAG stand for?
Screen actors guild.
What does AFTRA stand for?
American federation of television and radio artists.
Unethical audience promtion tactics.
- 1. the use of excessive hypoing to boost audience ratings
- 2. The creation of erroneous impressions of program content or the conditions for winning prizes.
- 3. the airing of phony testimonals bu celebrities, actors, or members of the general public
- 4. the toleration of payola or plugola.
What is hypoing?
Methods of manipulating ratings data.