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What is a neck righting reaction?
stimulus to joint receptorsin neck by causing contraction of limb and body muscles which align body with head
What reflex is associated with being suspended in the air?
- labrynthine righting reflex
- if you hold a baby in the air, their head will align
- stimulation of labrynthine receptors cause contraction of neck muscles to orient head in relation to gravitational force (upright head)
what is visual/optic righting reflex?
visual stimulus is used to orient the head and body correctly with the environment (esp imp. if other sensory input is deficient)
What reaction occurs if the head moves and the body follows?
- body righting on head reaction
- body aligns itself to head
- asymmetrical stimulation of skin receptors resulting from differential contact with supporting surface results in activity of trunk and limb mm which raise head to upright position
- works better if pt is stiff/has tone
What is a body right on body reaction?
- everything moves as one
- asymmetrical stimulation of skin receptors cause trunk mm to raise body toward upright (re-align body=sitting > rotate to hands > rotating rest of body to quadraped
What is the correct orientation of head in space (move body and head will adjust)?
head righting reaction
What is an automatic, compensatory reaction elicited by stimulation of labrynthine receptors which provides adaptation of whole body when COG is changed?
What is the landau reaction?
suspended prone position cauyses elevation of head and spinal and hip extension- antigravity
What reaction occurs when rotation of head stimulates proprioceptors in cervical mm, ligaments, and joints (elicits extensor tone in UE and LE on face side, and flexor tone in UE and LE on skull side)?
asymmetrical tonic neck reflex (ATNR)
What is symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STNR)?
- extend head, arms, and legs flex, and vice versa
- arms do what head does
What is grasp reflex?
- if palm is open, touch palm, esp on ulnar side, results in reflexive palmar grasp
What is the ability to separate mvmt in one body part from mvmt in another body part?
- great to use with high tone
- take one extremity and put in opposite position of other
What is reciprocal interweaving?
reappearance of certain patterns of mvmt at different times during development
What is a reflex activity?
mvmt performed automatically and without conscious volition
What is integrated over time so normal, purposeful mvmts can occur?
- primitive reflexes
- rooting, palmar grasp, moro
integration occurs when it is inhibited or excited by a higher center or increasingly complex networks which modify that reflex- pattern of response no longer recognized
What is an obligatory response?
- posture or mvmt is produced when an individual is dominated by a reflex
- reflex dominance is persistent beyond time for integration
- not purposeful
What are complex mvmts that occur when someone reaches, grasps, and releases an object?
What is the mvmt used to right the body into the normal position, and what mm are important for this?
- righting reaction
- trunk flexors (abs) and trunk extensors (paraspinals)
What does an equilibrium reaction look like?
ER on the WBing side, lateral flexion on the WBing side, ext of arm on the WBing side, and elongation of the trunk on the nonWBing side
- occur during transitions
- occur in each stage of development
What are protective reactions?
- extremity mvmts in response to quick displacements of the COG out of the BOS
- catching yourself
What are the 4 levels of integration of the nervous system?
- spinal-primitive/survival (apedal, without walking, baby)
- brainstem-tonic (4-6months)
- midbrain (6-9 months, righting reactions developing)
- cortical (9-12 months, equilibrium and balance reactions)
What is reflex dominance?
reflex is persistent beyonf the time it should integrate, it is abnormal and you need to get purposeful mvmt
What are associated reactions?
automatic mvmts that occur as a result of active or resisted mvmt in another body part
What is souques phenomenon?
flexion of the arm above 150 degrees facilitates ext and abd of the fingers
What is raimistes phenomenon?
resistance applied to hip abd or add of the uninvolved LE causes a similiar response in the involved LE
What is homolateral limb synkinesis?
flexion of the involved UE elicits flexion of the uninvolved LE