A&P 2 Test 1

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Anonymous
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169057
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A&P 2 Test 1
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2012-09-05 13:38:49
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A&P 2 Test 1
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  1. CNS brain & spinal cord 
    integrative and control centers 
  2. PNS sensory and motor divisions 
    afferent and efferent; cranial nerves, spinal nerves
  3. sensory: 
    sends info toward CNS afferent 
  4. external stimuli 
    towards brain and spinal cord 
  5. CNS is made up of these 2 things
    • spinal cord
    • brain
  6. the PNS is the ______ division
    Efferent/motor division
  7. PNS transmits______ from the _____ to   ______
    • impulses
    • CNS
    • effector organs
  8. somatic or _______ nervous system 
    voluntary
  9. somatic nervous system does what?
    • conscious control of skeletal muscles
    • sends info to skeletal muscles
  10. autonomic or ______ nervous system
    involuntary
  11. autonomic nervous system does what?
    regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands 
  12. two functional subdivisdions of autonomic nervous system
    • sympathetic division
    • parasympathetic division
  13. visceral afferent fibers 
    conveys impulses from visceral organs to CNS 
  14. parasympathetic 
    “rest and digest” 
  15. sympathetic 
    “fight or flight” 
  16. what is the most important regulatory system?
    nervous system
  17. Nervous system function

    Sensory:
    info is gathered by the sensory receptors about internal and external changes 
  18. intergration 
    interpretation of sensory input
  19. motor
    activation of effector organs (muscles and glands) produce a responce
  20. CNS integrates info it recieves from _____ and ______ _______
    • internal stimuli
    • external stimuli
  21. CNS also coordinates :
    activity
  22. the brain, along with the spinal cord and network of nerves controls:
    • 1 info flow throughout the body
    • 2 voluntary actions such as walking
    • 3 involuntary reactions such as breathing
  23. the spinal cord begins at _________ and ends at ________
    • begins = the foramen magnum
    • ends = conus medulllaris at L1 vertebra
  24. filum terminale
    connects spinal cord to coccyx
  25. 2 funtions of spinal cord
    • provides 2 way communication to and from the brain 
    • contains spinal reflex centers
  26. 3 structures of the spinal cord
    • cervical bulge 
    • lumbar bulge
    • conus medullaris
  27. spinal nerves
    • part of the peripheral nervous system. 
    • 31 pairs 
  28. cervical and lumbar enlargments 
    the nerves serving the upper and lower limbs enlarge here
  29. cauda equina 
    the collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal
  30. spinal cord 
    cross sectional anatomy
    2 lengthwise grooves divide cord into right and left halves.
  31. what are the 2 lengthwise grooves divide cord into right and left halves.
    • Ventral or anterior median fissure 
    • dorsal (posterior) median sulcus
  32. gray commissure
    connects the of gray matter encloses central canal
  33. Dorsal (posterior) horns 
    interneurons that recieve somatic and visceral sensory input 
  34. ventral (anterior) horns 
    somatic motor neurons whose axons exit the cord via ventral roots
  35. lateral horns 
    • remember! only located in thoracic and lumbar regions 
    • sympathetic neurons
  36. dorsal root (spinal) ganglia
    • contain cell bodies of sensory neurons 
    • send sensory input to dorsal horns
  37. white matter mostly of 
    • ascending (sensory) tracts
    • decending (motor) tracts
  38. transverse tracts 
    • commissural fibers
    • cross from one side to the other
  39. white matter of the spinal cord arraged into 
    • columns (larger units)
    • tracts (subunit of columns)
  40. ascending tracts:
    carry sensory signals up the spinal cord
  41. descending tracts
    descending tracts carry motor signals down the brain stem and spinal cord
  42. brain is made up of 4 pricipal sections 
    • 1 diencephalon
    • 2 brain stem
    • 3 cerebrum 
    • 4 cerebellum
  43. diencephelon has 3 paired structures list them
    • thalamus 
    • hypothalamus
    • epithalamus
  44. diencephalon encloses which ventricle 
    third
  45. the pituitary gland is also known as the _____ gland
    master
  46. hypothalamus

    infundibulum:
    stalk that connects to the pituitary gland

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