Chapter 3

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Chapter 3
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2012-09-05 12:42:16
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The Cell!
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  1. Germ cell
    reproductive cells, sex cells - the sperm and the egg (oocyte)
  2. somatic cell
    all other cells of the body. 
  3. hydrophilic
    water loving, polar charged
  4. hydrophobic
    repelled by water, non-polar
  5. amphipathic
    molecules that have both polar and nonpolar parts. 
  6. integral proteins
    extend into or through the lipid bilayer among the fatty acid tails and are firmly embedded in it. 
  7. peripheral proteins
    not as firmly embedded in the cell membrane.  attached to the polar heads of membrane lipids or to integral proteins at the inner or outer surface of the membrane. 
  8. transmember proteins
    proteins that span the entire lipid bilayer and protrude into both the cytosol and extracellular fluid.
  9. glycocalyx
    carbohydrate portions of glycolipids and glycoproteins form a sugary coat on the outside of cells. 
  10. simple diffusion
    passive process in which substances move freely through the lipid bilayer of the plasma membranes of cells without the help of membrane transport proteins.  NO ENERGY IS REQUIRED, FREE FLOWING MOVEMENT THROUGHOUT MEMBRANE.  small resp. gases (co2 and o2, hydrophobic steriods, little bit of h2o and etoh.
  11. fascilitated diffusion
    an integral membrane protein assists a specific substance across the membrane.  
  12. active transport
    an active process because energy is required for carrier proteins to move solutes across the membrane against a concentration gradient.  
  13. osmosis
    net movement of a solvent through a selectively permeable membrane.  passive process.  solvent is water, which moves by osmosis across plasma membranes from an area of higher water concentration to an area of lower water concentration.  
  14. tonicity
    measure of the solutions ability to change the volume of cells by altering their water content. 
  15. hypotonic
    solution that has a LOWER concentration of solutes than the cytosol inside RBCs. water goes inside cells. 
  16. hypertonic
    has a HIGHER concentration of solutes than the cytosol inside RBCs causing cells to shrink.  
  17. isotonic
    any solution in which a cell, for example, a red blood cell, maintains its normal shape and volume.  
  18. transcytosis
    used to move a substance into, across, and out of a cell. 
  19. endocytosis
    bringing something into the cell.  transports molecules or particles that are too large to move by diffusion or active transport.  
  20. exocytosis
    release something from the cell.  reverse of endocytosis.  membrane enclosed structures called secretory vesicles that form inside the cell fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into extracellular fluid. 
  21. phagocytosis
    "cell eating"  vesicle forms around a solic through the action of pseudopods.  
  22. pinocytosis
    "cell drinking"  process by which cells take in tiny droplets of liquid.  part of the cell membrane indents and the indentation contains some of the surrounding fluiod; a vesicle is formed and pinches off.  
  23. receptor - mediated endocytosis
    • moves only substances for which the cell membrane has specific receptors. 
    • substances bond to the membrane receptors. 
    • binding triggers the cell membrane to indent and form a vesicle around the substance and pull it inside. 
    • allows cells to respond to specific substances, such as cholesterol and hormones, when they are present in very low concentrations. 
  24. inclusions
    masses of insoluble material found in the cytosol of cells.  most commonly stored nutrients - glycogen/fat in liver.  fat droplets in adipose. 
  25. autophagy
    digestion of worn out organelles by lysosomes.  liver cells recycle approximately half of the cell contents every week. 
  26. autolysis
    process in which a cell self destructs.  
  27. organelles
    specialized structures that have characteristic shapes and perform specific functions in cellular growth, maintenance and reproduction.  
  28. chromatin
    loosely coiled threadlike strands of DNA and protein. 
  29. chromosomes
    chromatin is wound into a fiber which is the basis of chromosomes.  consist of 2 sister chromatids.  3 parts: p arms, q arms, and centromeres.  containes thousands of genes per each. 
  30. mitosis
    the distribution of two sets of chromosomes, one set into each of two separate muclei.  
  31. meiosis
    results in the production of haploid cells that contain only 23 chromosomes. 
  32. chromatids
    just before cell division takes place the DNA replicates (duplicates) and the loops condense even more, forming a pari of chromatids. 
  33. centromere
    the constricted portion of a chromosome where the two chromatids are joined; serves as the point of attachement for the microtubules that pull chromatids during anaphase of cell division. 
  34. cancer
    a broad group of diseases characteried by abnormal cell reproduction.  cancer cells compete with healthy cells for nutrients and can invade healthy structures and impair their function.  
  35. benign
    tumors that do not metastasize or spread.  
  36. malignanat
    spreads due to cells that detach from tumor and enter blood or lymph.  
  37. 3 parts of cell theory. 
    • cells are the structural building blocks of all plants and animals. 
    • Cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells
    • cells are the smallest structural unites that perform all vital functions. 
  38. 3 types of lipids found in plasma membrane
    • phospholipids
    • cholesterol
    • glycolipids
  39. functions fo membrane proteins
    • function as
    • channels (pores)
    • transporters
    • receptors
    • enzymes
    • cell-identity markers
    • linker
  40. cytoplasm
    consists of all the cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus. made up of cytosol and organelles.

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