Turbine theory 1.txt

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JermKSully
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169059
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Turbine theory 1.txt
Updated:
2012-09-05 12:41:24
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AAC Sullivan Turbine Theory
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Turbine Theory Test 1 Review
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  1. A gas turbine engine must have?
    Oxygen through the intake.
  2. **The fathers of turbine engines?
    Whittle & Ohain
  3. The first turbine design to make it in the air was by?
    Ohain
  4. The spool is made up of?
    Compressor, shaft, & turbine
  5. **The rotating element of the turbine engine is?
    The spool
  6. The 7 basic sections in every turbine engine?
    • -Air inlet
    • -Compressor
    • -Combustion
    • -Turbine
    • -Exhaust
    • -Accessory
    • -Systems necessary for starting, lubrication, fuel supply, & auxiliary purposes, such as anti-icing, cooling, & pressurization
  7. **Turbines are divided into what 2 sections? For what purpose?
    Hot & cold sections

    Inspection purposes
  8. **The hot section includes?
    Combustion, turbine, & exhaust sections
  9. **The cold section includes?
    Air inlet duct & compressor sections
  10. What's the main function of engine inlet?
    To raise pressure
  11. Aircraft operating on the ground have what inlet pressure?
    Negative pressure
  12. **What are standard day conditions?
    • 59 degrees F
    • 29.92" Hg @ sea level
    • 14.7 PSI
    • Low humidity
    • No wind
    • Speed of sound - 760-763 MPH
  13. A convergent-divergent (CD) duct is required on?
    All supersonic aircraft
  14. **What happens to Bernoulli's Principle when supersonic speed is reached?
    It reverses
  15. **What are the characteristics of a convergent duct at subsonic speeds?
    • Velocity - Up
    • Pressure - Down
    • Temperature - Down
  16. **What are the characteristics of a divergent duct at subsonic speeds?
    • Velocity - Down
    • Pressure - Up
    • Temperature - Up
  17. **What are the characteristics of a CD duct at supersonic speeds?
    • Velocity - Down
    • Pressure - Up
    • Temperature - Up
  18. **Where are bell mouth intakes primarily used?
    On helicopters and test cells
  19. **Sand and ice particles are removed by what 2 methods?
    Centrifugal loading & inertia
  20. **How is a vortex generator activated and what does it do?
    Activated by squat switch (weight on wheels).

    Keeps a vortex from forming in front of the intake.
  21. **What is the power extraction for a turboshaft or turboprop and how is it measured?
    Torque (shaft HP)
  22. **What is the power extraction for a turbojet or turbofan and how is it measured?
    Thrust (pounds)
  23. What does the acronym NF mean when speaking of turboshaft engines?
    Power Section
  24. What does the acronym NG mean when speaking of turboshaft engines?
    Gas generator
  25. **What kind of engine would you see on a modern transport category aircraft?
    A turbofan high bypass
  26. How are turbofan engine spools aligned?
    Coaxially
  27. What effect does gravity have on an objects velocity?
    Causes velocity to increase by 32.2 ft/s
  28. What are the 4 forces of flight?
    • Lift
    • Weight
    • Thrust
    • Drag
  29. Which 2 forms of energy best describe the propulsive power of the jet engine?
    • Potential energy
    • Kinetic energy
  30. **Stored energy is known as
    Potential energy
  31. **Energy in motion (at work) is known as?
    Kinetic energy
  32. **What does Bernoulli's Principle deal with?
    The pressure of gases

    Velocity and pressure are inversely proportional
  33. The combination of ram pressure and static pressure equals?
    Total pressure
  34. **The Brayton cycle is a?
    Constant Pressure Cycle
  35. When is gross thrust (FG) computed?
    When the airplane is at rest
  36. **Gross thrust is the same as?
    Static thrust
  37. What factors affect thrust?
    • Ambient temperature
    • Altitude
    • Airspeed
    • Engine RPM
  38. **How does altitude, temperature, density, speed, and humidity affect thrust?
    Altitude ^ - thrust v

    Temperature ^ - thrust v

    Density ^ - thrust ^

    Speed ^ - thrust ^

    Humidity - little to no effect
  39. **What is the fluid used to operate a vortex dissipator?
    Bleed air
  40. **Which type of duct is used on a subsonic aircraft?
    Divergent
  41. **What's the speed of sound on a standard day?
    760-763
  42. What device is used on helicopters to help prevent FOD damage?
    Inlet screen
  43. **What is Newton's 2nd law?
    F=M x A
  44. **What location in a turbine engine is the point of highest static pressure?
    Diffuser section / Outlet of compressor / Entrance of combustor
  45. Turbine components are typically made of?
    Nickel alloy
  46. **What is the ultimate limiting factor for turbine engines?
    Total Inlet Temperature (TIT)
  47. What 3 thermodynamic processes do gases passing through a turbine engine undergo?
    • Compression
    • Combustion
    • Expansion
  48. **What are the 3 types of turbine engine compressors?
    • Centrifugal
    • Axial
    • Combination
  49. **What drives the low pressure compressor (LPC)?
    N1
  50. **What drives the high pressure compressor (HPC)?
    N2
  51. **The speed of sound dependent upon ambient conditions is known as?
    Mach
  52. **What is the relationship between temperature and the speed of sound?
    Temperature ^ - Speed of sound ^

    They are directly proportional
  53. **What are the 3 types of inlet ducts?
    • Subsonic
    • Supersonic
    • Bellmouth
  54. **Combustion, in a turbine, always takes place under a __________________ pressure.
    Constant
  55. **At very high speeds, thrust increases rapidly with?
    Small changes in RPM
  56. **What does a convergent duct look like?
    It is larger at the opening and gets smaller.
  57. **What does a divergent duct look like?
    It is smaller at the opening and gets larger.
  58. **What are the 3 main sections of a turbine engine?
    • Compressor
    • Combustor
    • Turbine
  59. **What factors affect density?
    • Speed
    • Altitude
    • Temperature
  60. **What is Newton's 1st law?
    • A body at rest will remain at rest.
    • A body in motion will remain in motion.
    • -unless acted on by an outside force
  61. **What is Newton's 3rd law?
    For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
  62. **What is standard day temperature?
    59 degrees Fahrenheit
  63. **What is standard day pressure?
    14.7 PSI

    29.92" Hg
  64. **What is standard day humidity?
    Low humidity
  65. **What is standard day wind conditions?
    No wind

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