A&P 2 Test 1.txt

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  1. CNS brain & spinal cord 
    integrative and control centers 
  2. PNS sensory and motor divisions 
    afferent and efferent; cranial nerves, spinal nerves
  3. sensory: 
    sends info toward CNS afferent 
  4. external stimuli 
    towards brain and spinal cord 
  5. CNS is made up of these 2 things
    • spinal cord
    • brain
  6. the PNS is the ______ division
    Efferent/motor division
  7. PNS transmits______ from the _____ to   ______
    • impulses
    • CNS
    • effector organs
  8. somatic or _______ nervous system 
  9. somatic nervous system does what?
    • conscious control of skeletal muscles
    • sends info to skeletal muscles
  10. autonomic or ______ nervous system
  11. autonomic nervous system does what?
    regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands 
  12. two functional subdivisdions of autonomic nervous system
    • sympathetic division
    • parasympathetic division
  13. visceral afferent fibers 
    conveys impulses from visceral organs to CNS 
  14. parasympathetic 
    “rest and digest” 
  15. sympathetic 
    “fight or flight” 
  16. what is the most important regulatory system?
    nervous system
  17. Nervous system function

    info is gathered by the sensory receptors about internal and external changes 
  18. intergration 
    interpretation of sensory input
  19. motor
    activation of effector organs (muscles and glands) produce a responce
  20. CNS integrates info it recieves from _____ and ______ _______
    • internal stimuli
    • external stimuli
  21. CNS also coordinates :
  22. the brain, along with the spinal cord and network of nerves controls:
    • 1 info flow throughout the body
    • 2 voluntary actions such as walking
    • 3 involuntary reactions such as breathing
  23. the spinal cord begins at _________ and ends at ________
    • begins = the foramen magnum
    • ends = conus medulllaris at L1 vertebra
  24. filum terminale
    connects spinal cord to coccyx
  25. 2 funtions of spinal cord
    • provides 2 way communication to and from the brain 
    • contains spinal reflex centers
  26. 3 structures of the spinal cord
    • cervical bulge 
    • lumbar bulge
    • conus medullaris
  27. spinal nerves
    • part of the peripheral nervous system. 
    • 31 pairs 
  28. cervical and lumbar enlargments 
    the nerves serving the upper and lower limbs enlarge here
  29. cauda equina 
    the collection of nerve roots at the inferior end of the vertebral canal
  30. spinal cord 
    cross sectional anatomy
    2 lengthwise grooves divide cord into right and left halves.
  31. what are the 2 lengthwise grooves divide cord into right and left halves.
    • Ventral or anterior median fissure 
    • dorsal (posterior) median sulcus
  32. gray commissure
    connects the of gray matter encloses central canal
  33. Dorsal (posterior) horns 
    interneurons that recieve somatic and visceral sensory input 
  34. ventral (anterior) horns 
    somatic motor neurons whose axons exit the cord via ventral roots
  35. lateral horns 
    • remember! only located in thoracic and lumbar regions 
    • sympathetic neurons
  36. dorsal root (spinal) ganglia
    • contain cell bodies of sensory neurons 
    • send sensory input to dorsal horns
  37. white matter mostly of 
    • ascending (sensory) tracts
    • decending (motor) tracts
  38. transverse tracts 
    • commissural fibers
    • cross from one side to the other
  39. white matter of the spinal cord arraged into 
    • columns (larger units)
    • tracts (subunit of columns)
  40. ascending tracts:
    carry sensory signals up the spinal cord
  41. descending tracts
    descending tracts carry motor signals down the brain stem and spinal cord
  42. brain is made up of 4 pricipal sections 
    • 1 diencephalon
    • 2 brain stem
    • 3 cerebrum 
    • 4 cerebellum
  43. diencephelon has 3 paired structures list them
    • thalamus 
    • hypothalamus
    • epithalamus
  44. diencephalon encloses which ventricle 
  45. the pituitary gland is also known as the _____ gland
  46. hypothalamus

    stalk that connects to the pituitary gland
  47. Hypothalamic function
    • Autonomic control center for many
    • visceral functions   (e.g., blood pressure, rate and force of heartbeat, digestive tract motility)
    • Center for emotional response:  Involved in perception of pleasure, fear, and rage
    • Regulates body temperature, food intake, water balance, and thirst
    • Controls release of hormones by the anterior pituitary
    • Produces posterior pituitary hormones
  48. Thalamus 
    • 80% of diencephalon
    • gateway to the cerebral cortex
    • sorts,edits,and relays information
  49. epithalamus
    • Most dorsal portion of the diencephalon
    • Pineal gland—extends from the posterior border and secretes melatonin
    • Melatonin—helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and other biological rhythms 
  50. what is the specific order of the brain stem?
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
    • reticular formation & RAS
  51. what does the brain stem control?
    what is it associated with?
    • Controls automatic behaviors necessary for survival
    • Associated with 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
  52. Diencephalon encapsulates which ventricle of the brain?
  53. Mid Brain
    • located between the diencephalon and the pons 
    • cerebral aqueduct
    • channel between third and fourth ventrilcles 
  54. Mid Brain nuclei

    Corpora quadrigemia : 
    domelike dorsal protrusions
  55. Mid Brain nuclei
    Superior colliculi
    • top two protrusions of corpora quadrigemia
    • visual reflex centers
  56. Mid Brain nuclei
    inferior colliculi
    bottom two protrusions of corpora quadrigemia
  57. Mid Brain nuclei
    substantia nigra
    produces the neurotransmitter dopamine
  58. Pons
    • with medulla oblongata controls breathing
    • froms part of the anterior wall of the fourth ventrilcle
    • maintains normal rhythm of breathing  
  59. Medulla oblongata
    • controls breathing with Pons
    • joins spinal cord at the foramen magnum
    • contains a choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle
  60. decesation or crossing over occurs in three places:
    • spinal cord
    • mudulla oblongata
    • thalamus
  61. Centers of medulla oblongata (4)
    • autonomic reflex centers (heart rate, BP)
    • cardio vascular center 
    • respiratory center
    • additional centers for vommiting,hiccuping, swallowing, coughing, sneezing
  62. riticular formation
    • three broad columns along the length of the brain stem 
    • has far-flung axonal connections with the hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and spinal cord
  63. Reticular formation RAS
    • RAS : reticular activating system
    • sends impulses to the cerebral cortex to keep it concous and alert 
    • filters out repetitive and weak stimuli
    • severe injury results in perminent unconciousness (coma)
  64. cerebrum 
    • largest part of the human brain
    • associated with higher brain functions such as thought and action 
    • memory, cognition
  65. Structure of cerebrum 
    divided into right and left _______
    hemispheres are connected by ________
    _______ in the corpus callosum allow two hemispheres to share info
    cerebral cortex:
    • hemispheres
    • corpus callosum
    • nerve tracts
    • grey matter, the outer layer of the cerebrum
  66. what is the lateralization of the cortical function?
    division of labor between hemispheres 
  67. what is cerebral dominance
    designates the hemisphere dominant for language 
  68. left hemishpere is associated with :
    controls language, math, and logic
  69. right hemisphere is associated with:
    insight, visual spatial skills, intuition, and artistic skills
  70. cerebral cortex or gray matter is made up of (2)
    • surface markings
    • lobes
  71. surface markings (3)
    • gyri = ridges and folds
    • sulci = shallow grooves 
    • fissures = deep grooves
  72. what are the 5 lobes
    • frontal
    • parietal
    • temporal
    • occipital
    • insula
  73. surface markings of cerebral hemishperes 
    central sulcus:
    • seperates the frontal and parietal lobes
    • seperates the precentral gyrus of the frontal lobe and the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe
  74. surface markings of cerebral hemishperes 
    longitudinal fissure
    seperates the two hemispheres 
  75. surface markings of cerebral hemishperes 
    transverse cerebral fissure
    sepereates the cerebrum and the cerebellum
  76. cerebral cortex 
    frontal lobes consist of
    • precentral gyrus/primary motor cortex
    • premotor cortex
    • prefrontal cortex/anterior association area
    • broca's area - language area
  77. precentral gyrus/primary motor cortex
    • executes voluntary movements 
    • allows conscious control of precise, skilled, voluntary movements 
    • the primary motor cortex on one side controls all moving parts on the contralateral side of the body.
  78. premotor cortex
    • anterior to the precentral gyrus
    • selects voluntary movements, which are then executed by the primary motor cortex
    • controls learned, repetitious, or patterened motor skills 
    • coordinates simultaneous or sequential actions
    • involved in the planning of movements that depend on sensory feedback 
  79. Pre-frontal cortex /anterior association area 
    • most complicated cortical region 
    • involved with intellect, cognition, recall, personality, impulse control, reactivity to the surroundings and mood.
    • contains working memory needed for judgment, reasoning, persistence, and conscience
    • executive area for task managment 
    • solving complex, multitask problems, sequencing of activity, planning, abstract reasoning, and deviding attention.
  80. broca's area
    • anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area 
    • present in one hemisphere usually left
    • a motor speech area that directs muscles of the tongue
    • is active as one prepares to speak 
    • controls expressive language functions
  81. Parietal Lobes
    Postcentral gyrus/primary sensory (somatosensory) cortex
    • In the postcentral gyri
    • Receives sensory information from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints
    • Mediate proprioception (awareness of the position of body parts in space).
    • Capable of spatial discrimination: identification of body region being stimulated
    • Lesions of the anterior parietal lobe can cause difficulty recognizing objects by touch
  82. Somatic Sensations Arise from Receptors Throughout the Body
    • Detect touch, pressure, vibration, pain, awareness of body position and movements
    • Send impulses to the primary somatosensory area of parietal lobe
    • Somatosensory area processes the information and sends it to the primary motor area in the frontal lobe
  83. Secondary sensory area/somatosensory association cortex
    • Posterior to the primary somatosensory cortex
    • Integrates sensory input from primary somatosensory cortex
    • Determines size, texture, and relationship of parts of objects being felt
    • Damage can affect the ability to recognize objects even though the objects can be felt. 
  84. temporal lobes
    • Primary auditory cortex
    • Secondary auditory cortex/auditory association area
    • Wernicke’s area
  85. Temporal lobes
    primary auditory cortex
    • Superior margin of the temporal lobes
    • Interprets information from inner ear as pitch, loudness, and location
  86. Temporal lobes 
    secondary auditory cortex/auditory association area
    • Located posterior to the primary auditory cortex
    • Stores memories of sounds and permits perception of sounds
  87. Wernicke's area
    • Located in the temporal lobe on the left side of the brain
    • Involved in understanding written and spoken language
    • Wernicke’s area is responsible for the comprehension of speech, whereas Broca’s area is related to the production of speech
  88. occipital lobes
    • primary visual cortex 
    • secondary visual cortex 
  89. occipital lobes
    primary visual cortex
    • extreme posterior tip of occipital lobe 
    • recieves visual information from the retinas
  90. occipital lobes
    Secondary visual cortex/visual association area
    • Surrounds the primary visual cortex
    • Uses past visual experiences to interpret visual stimuli (e.g., color, form, and movement)
  91. cerebral cortex 
    • gustatory cortex
    • involved in the perception of taste
  92. cerebrum
    3 fibers of the cerebral medulla (white matter of the cerebrum)
    • Association fibers
    • commissural fibers 
    • projection fibers
  93. Association Fibers
    connect different parts of the same hemisphere
  94. commissural fibers 
    • located in corpus callosum
    • connect gray matter of the two hemispheres 
  95. projection fibers 
    connect the hemispheres with lower brain or spinal cord
  96. cerebellum is the _____  ______  part of the brain.
    second largest
  97. functions of the cerebellum
    • Subconsciously provides precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction
    • Signals from proprioceptors and visual and equilibrium pathways continuously “inform” the cerebellum of the body’s position and momentum
    • Helps to maintain balance
    • Plays a role in nonmotor functions such as word association and puzzle solving
  98. cerebellum also coordinates: 
    it also stores and replicates _____ __ _____ _______
    • basic body movements
    • sequences of skilled movements
  99. Anatomy of cerebellum
    two hemishperes connected by a vermis
  100. each hemisphere of the cerebellum has three lobes:
    • anterior
    • posterior
    • flocculonodular
  101. Folia:
    transversly oriented gyri 
  102. Arbor Vitae:
    distinctive treelike pattern of the cerebellar white matter
  103. cerebellum
    flocculonodular node controls:
    balance and eye movement
  104. Blood brain barrier
    helps maintain a ______ _______ for the brain.
    stable enviroment
  105. Blood brain barrier
    seperates _______ from some blood bourne substances.
  106. Blood brain barrier is selective in that it : 
    • Allows nutrients to move by facilitated diffusion
    • Allows any fat-soluble substances to pass, including alcohol, nicotine, and anesthetics 
  107. ventricular system consists of:
    • Lateral ventricles
    • Third ventricle
    • Fourth ventricle
    • Choroid plexuses
  108. Choriod Plexuses
    • Produce CSF at a constant rate
    • Hang from the roof of each ventricle
    • Clusters of capillaries enclosed by pia mater and a layer of ependymal cells
    • Ependymal cells use ion pumps to control the composition of the CSF and help cleanse CSF by removing wastes
  109. Function of CSF - cerebrospinal fluid
    • Gives buoyancy to the CNS organs
    • Protects the CNS from blows and other trauma
    • Nourishes the brain and carries chemical signals
  110. what are the 3 layers of the Meninges from outer most to innermost layer?
    • Dura Mater 
    • Arachnoid Mater
    • Pia Mater
  111. Dura Mater
    • Strongest layer of meninges
    • Two layers of fibrous connective tissue (around the brain) separate to form dural sinuses
  112. Dural septa/folds limit excessive movement of the brain. What are the 3:
    • Falx cerebri: in the longitudinal fissure
    • Falx cerebelli: along the vermis of the cerebellum
    • Tentorium cerebelli: horizontal dural fold over cerebellum and in the transverse fissure
  113. Arachnoid Mater
    ______ layer with weblike extensions
    Separated from the dura mater by the _________
    Subarachnoid space contains ____ and _________
    __________ protrude into the _________ and permit CSF reabsorption.
    • Middle
    • Subdural space
    • CSF, Blood Vessels
    • Arachnoid villi, Superior Saggital Sinus 
  114. Pia Layer
    Layer of delicate vascularized connective tissue that clings tightly to the brain.
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A&P 2 Test 1.txt
2012-09-07 17:15:34
maria college test

test 1 hutchins A&P 2
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