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Which HIV virus is less virulent, causes a disease that takes longer to develop and has a lower morbidity rate?
Which HIV virus is derived from the sooty mangabey SIV?
Which HIV virus is derived from the chimpanzee SIV virus?
General Properties (in terms of cellular tropism)?
- Initial infection - monocyte/dendritic cells
- Initial and late infection - CD4+ T cells
- Late infection - microglia (affects neuron directly)
What are the 3 clinical symptoms of AIDS?
- CD4+ T cell depletion
- Neurological manifestations
- Neoplasms (Kaposi's sarcoma, lymphoma)
What are the 3 ways in which AIDS can be transmitted?
- Sexual transmission
- Mother to infant
Explain the clinical course of AIDS (starting with viremia and ending with fully-developed AIDS).
- 1. viremia
- 2. immune response and initial increase in CD8+ T cells
- 3. Sustained period of anti-gp120 antibody response
- 4. persistent infection - can be asymptomatic and can last for years
- 5. persistent generalized lypmhadenopathy (PGL) syndrome
- 6.. fully developed AIDS
Explain the course of HIV replication.
- 1. adsorption and entry
- 2. SU and V3 regions bind to CD4 receptor
- 3. release of chemokines by virus
- 4. chemokines binds to CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokine receptors on monocytes and CD4+ T cells, respectively.
- 5. recruitment of monocytes and CD4+ T cells
- 6. long-term non-progression of HIV
What are 2 characteristics of long-term non-progression of HIV-infected individuals?
- 1. low or undeteactable viral levels, elevated CD4+ cell counts without antiretroviral treatment
- 2. mutations in CCR5 or higher levels of ligand that binds CCR5
Match the following.
A. Regulatory proteins
B. Accessory proteins
C. Important role in ability of HIV to infect non-dividing cells and arrests cellular proliferation
D. transactivator of viral transcription
E. Downregulates CD4 expression and promotes virus budding by inhibition of cellular protein tetherin
F. Evasion of immune system via downregulating CD4 and MHC class II molecules, and prevents apoptosis of infected cell
G. regulates viral RNA transport from the nucleus
H. inhibits cellular protein that degrades reverse transcribed viral DNA
- 1. A, D
- 2. A, G
- 3. B, F
- 4. B, C
- 5. B, H
- 6. B, E
What is the therapy/treatment for HIV/AIDS?
- early treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) - combo drugs
- vaginal gels - RT inhibitor
- pre-exposure prophylaxis for uninfected partner(s)
- vaccines - recombo viral proteins, produce neutralizing Abs and stimulate CD8+ T cells
Clinically, what is most likely responsible for the decrease in viral titer in HIV patients?
Increases in anti-env Ab and anti-HIV CTL